Chongqing(1950s-1960s)/a Multinucleus industrial city, Population: Composition and Management
Population composition is an important issue of Chongqing at the early stage of People’s Republic of China. Chongqing’ s growth in 1940s was very fast, and lots of farmers in this region had became workers in factories. Also, during world war two, many collages and scientific institution moved to Chongqing from Japanese-occupied region. This is an opportunity that Chongqing got a lot of educated population. Although most of them moved back to the original places after 1945, the rest was still a great help on technology and organization of Chongqing’ s industry and society in the 1950s-1960s.
Talking about population of Chongqing back then, one thing I must write about is the primary organization of the Party. Party members played a leading role in every factory, community, school, and in the new government. They had the responsibility to educate people, help and protect people, and act as a model worker. After occupying Chongqing, the Party tried very hard to take in more party members in Chongqing, and set the very primary organizations-the Party Branches. Three or more Party members can become a branch. Till October 1951, there were 293 Party branches and 5691 Party members in Chongqing, over 3000 of which were new party members taken in after 1950, and nearly 1000 of the new members were factory workers. Party branches and members are the heart of the industrial-residential clusters.
Also in the1950s, the first demographic census was made, the household registration system (Hukou) was set in China, and districts of Chongqing was redivided. Besides the party, other organizations such as the Labour Union, the Communist Youth League, and the Women’s Federation was found in Chongqing.