Chongqing(1950s-1960s)/a Multinucleus industrial city, Social Value and culture
During the early stage of People’s Republic of China, the special social condition and social value were also essential in the industrial clusters. Urbanization happened under the Party’s direction. Industrial clusters rose. The working class was valued a lot because it is a foundation of the worker-peasant alliance, and of the Party. As mentioned in the Population part, nearly 1000 Chongqing workers were taken into the Party during 1950-1951. This Party-member workers are the heart of each industrial cluster or a single factory. They are the model workers, and also the leaders of the industrial clusters. And under policy of Woman’s Liberation, thousands of women went out of families and became factory workers.
Under this social condition, dedication and collectivism became the main social value of the era of planned economy. With religious fanaticism of socialism, workers had got exhaustless sense of responsibility and strength, and worked hard selflessly. Every worker regarded himself as a screw of the machine of the community and the society. This is a characteristic of Utopia. Those who profited by other people’s toil was looked down upon, dispossessed of their properties, and then penalized or forced to join in work in the early 1950s.
In these industrial clusters, socialist culture and education was promoted. In 1950, the city government organized more than 6800 teachers and over 10000 students to have political learning. Also in 1950, spare-time schools was set. By fall 1950, there were 1072 classes of spare-time schools in Chongqing, and 44156 people attending these classes. And since 1952, the movement to wipe out illiteracy started all over China, and because of these arrangements, literacy level of workers in these clusters improved a lot.
Literature and art teams were organized in the industrial clusters. People join in drama teams, opera teams, choirs, Yangge teams, and also enjoy the performance of these teams.