Slum Formation – Rural Urban Shift in Jakarta
As mentioned in the previous article, the government in Jakarta would like to follow the footprint of the ‘successful’ case of urban development of European through developing a new city centre as a symbol of modernity with different zonings radiating out the centre. “The speedy growth of third world metropolises, and the social contradictions of development…can outplace any plan, creating congestion, crowding, and pollution.”*1
It was not after this shift of urban development that made slum a real problem in Jakarta. Since then, there was a population boom from 2.7 million to 9.2 million in 1970s-1980s, mainly due to a large influx of migrants. Most of the immigrants are residents living in the rural areas who could not afford a proper housing in the city. This could be best accounted by the push pull factors of migration.
An extensive research*2 by the locals has been done to investigate and interview the immigrants in Jakarta. Among the interviewees, the vast majority came to Jakarta for a better job opportunity so as to earn a living and most of them lived far away from the city( more than 100km). Furthermore, most of them did not regret to move to Jakarta, meaning that they were willing to do so.
One has to be noted that according to the diagrams, the pull factors include improved living conditions, but the reality is that the population grew so fast that the dwellers were cramped in those informal settlements, causing problems of poor sanitary conditions, and eventually became slums in the region.
Bibliography and Reference
1. Eric, S., Philip, P., David, F. and Richa, N. (2009) A World of Difference: Encountering and Contesting Development. New York: The Guilford Press, p.487