Brief Background of Housing policy before and after Doi Moi
Hanoi became the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam from 1954 – 1976 and eventually the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam after the unity of Vietnam.
Comparing to Sai Kong, Hanoi has a much longer period of time under the rule of the communist party, thus showing a much more influenced urban gesture by socialism.
There were strict housing policy that housing can only be built by the government. Privately built will be demolished. Meanwhile, city-based registration system was imposed that people from other city were illegal to live in Hanoi without permission. These control of urban growth not only prevent the overcrowding in the city centre but also ensure the limited infrastructure in the city would not be overloaded. In fact, the housing built by government would be concentrated around the infrastructure like market, police station to maximise the economic efficiency.
In fact, in order to maximize the economic efficiency, most facilities left by French colonial government are preserved to continue its function, despite the official ideology of nationalism against colony.
Prison built by French is preserved to continue the function
Since the introduction of economic reform policies of the late 1980s, known as Doi Moi, private and foreign investment has been encouraged by the government mainly in or near the large cities, namely Hanoi or Ho Chi Minh City. This has attracted large numbers of migrants to seek employment in the cities, which is a significant contributor to the rapid urbanisation. Migration and internal growth has pushed urban expansion into the surrounding countryside, resulting in the development of large metropolitan conurbations. Foreign investments for new urban developments on city outskirts have introduced a new form of urbanisation.
Satellite town of Hanoi
Source : Urbanization without sprawl – Vietnam experiences and perspective, Duong Quoc Nghi: Urbanization without Sprawl – Vietnam Experiences and Perspective 44th ISOCARP Congress 2008