Manila Map at the End of Spanish Occupation in 1898
This map shows the conditions of Manila right before being handed over from the Spanish to the American in 1898. As shown in the map, outside the intramuros there was extramuros consisted of 12 major settlements mainly for non-Spanish residents, including the Chinese in Parian, Japanese in Dilao, Mestizos in Binondo (a special zone for Hispanicized and Christianized Chinese Mestizos) and Filipinos scattered around a few areas. While Parian, Dilao and Binondo were segregated as special zones to avoid potential riots from these foreign settlers, other areas of extramuros had been given very little planning and care of by the Spanish government authority (Reed, 1978). The morphological elements of extramuros were more given by the missionaries through the construction of religious institutions such as churches (red blocks in the map). On one hand the Spaniards tried every means to distinguish themselves from the Asians. On the other hand, the economy and basic everyday life needs depended very much on these people through the merchandise from their home countries, skills for farming and all kinds of handicrafts, etc. The physical segregation of settlements of diverse ethnic groups, the interdependent economical relationship and the legacy of the intramuros including all forms of fortification and existing gridded layout were the main factors that the American colonial urban planners were facing at the turn of the century.
Reed, R. R. (1978) Colonial Manila: The context of Hispanic urbanism and process of morphogenesis. University of California Press.