Manila Plan: Traces of Realization
General Planning of Burnham and Architectural Works by Parsons
1. ‘Details and Description of the Burnham Plans for the Reconstruction of Manila’ (1907), Far Eastern Review, pp. 322.
This journal includes Daniel Burnham’s making of general preliminary plans for the cities of Manila and Baguio with his designer, Pierce Anderson, after Howard Taft initiated a comprehensive building construction and city planning in the country.
2. Rebori, A.N. (1917-04). ‘The Work of William Parsons in the Philippines Islands’, Architectural Record, Vol. 41, pp.305-309.
This article includes William Parson’s work in Manila from 1905 to 1914 as a consulting architect for the Government. The featured buildings prove that Parson was an American architect who established city plans and buildings of a permanent nature suited to the needs and requirements of a tropical country.
3. Mancini, J.M. (2012). ‘Destructive Creation: The U.S.-Philippine Relations in American Art’. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, pp.39-49.
This is one of the few books which notes the creation of works of art and architecture that played a part in the US imperial administration of the Philippines. The author attempts to challenge Thomas Hine’s idea that “political and economic” programs pursued by the United States in the Philippines were more noticeable than the mere art and architectural measures.
Burnham Planning in Modern Manila
1. Goodno, J. B. (2004) ‘Burnham’s Manila’, Planning, 70(11), pp. 30-34.
Goodno refers to the major contemporary issues of Manila, from overly motorized traffic to lack of infrastructural connectors in the urban fabric. As he stresses the need for a proper public planning, Goodno praises Burnham’s achievements in American colonial legacy. Apart from the realized boulevards and government center, the Manila plan serves as a guidance to the future architectural tradition and zoning ordinance of the city.
2. Ishikawa, M. (2012) Analysis and Comparison of Public Open Spaces of the Burnham Plan and the Present Manila. Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture, Vol. 75 No. 5, pp. 461-466.
This article looks at Burnham’s public open spaces as typologies, each of which serves a varied urban function. As the author compares the past and present use of space of the typologies, he concludes that the pressures of urbanization in Manila have resulted in the unsystematic development of public open spaces, lack of adequate maintenance of existing public open spaces, and a threat of converting into other uses. As Manila transitioned from a colonial period to a modern city, the use of public open spaces generally became more specialized, more as an extension of their homes and spaces for social interaction.