The Built Public Institutions of Manila’s Plan
According to Burnham’s Report on Improvement of Manila (1905), there are 13 types of buildings to be built, which include: government group, hall of justice (Court House), library and other cultural institutions, post-office, railway station, bridges as railway approaches, municipal group, official residences, social clubs, a new hotel, casino along with public baths and boat clubs, school centre and charitable institutions such as hospitals. For their planned locations, please refer to the post of An Overview of Manila Plan.
Most of the them were unrealized due to many factors such as the changing governance of colonialism, World War II and Japanese conquest (Goodno, 2004). Among the few executed examples, two American architects acted as the key figures. The first one is William Parsons who stayed in Philippines until 1914. The next year Ralph Harrington Doane took over the job till 1918 (Cody, 2003). After Doane, it was Filipino architects including Carlos Berrato, Juan M. Arellano, Antonio Toledo and and Tomás Mapúa sent to be trained in the US who were responsible for the execution (Salvan, 2000). Below is a list of buildings that were constructed by respective architects in Manila. It is based on a collection of documents and literature that the author can reach, which includes the major works but might not be exhaustive due to the limitation of resources.
- Educational Institutions: Intermediate School (1909), the University of Philippines Main Mall (1913), the Normal School (1914) and Central School (1914)
- Social clubs: Manila Club (1908), Army-Navy Club (1908), YMCA (i.e. Young Men’s Christian Association in 1909) and Elks Club (1911)
- Paco Municipal Market (1911)
- Manila Hotel (1912)
- Philippine General Hospital (1910)
Ralph Harrington Doane
- Original Design of National Library
Juan M. Arellano and Tomás Mapúa
- Central Post Office (1926)
- Adapting the National Library to Hall of Justice (1926). This might be confusing since the planned Court House was not built and the library became the place for it which was originally designed by Doane
- Manila City Hall (1941)
- Department of Agriculture (1930s)
- Department of Finance
Burnham, D. H. (1905) ‘Report on Improvement of Manila’, Sixth Annual Report of the Philippine Commission 1905. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 627-635.
Cody, J. W. (2003) ‘US Military Victories in 1898: Confidence, Commerce and Construction’, Exporting American Architecture, 1870-2000 Planning, History and the Environment Series. London: Routledge, pp. 45-49.
Goodno, J. B. (2004) ‘Burnham’s Manila’, Planning, 70(11), pp. 6.
Salvan, G. S. (2000) ‘Philippines Architectural Character’, Architectural & Const. Data: Goodwill Bookstore, pp. 219-236.