The Built Public Institutions of Manila’s Plan

According to Burnham’s Report on Improvement of Manila (1905), there are 13 types of buildings to be built, which include: government group, hall of justice (Court House), library and other cultural institutions, post-office, railway station, bridges as railway approaches, municipal group, official residences, social clubs, a new hotel, casino along with public baths and boat clubs, school centre and charitable institutions such as hospitals. For their planned locations, please refer to the post of An Overview of Manila Plan.

Most of the them were unrealized due to many factors such as the changing governance of colonialism, World War II and Japanese conquest (Goodno, 2004). Among the few executed examples, two American architects acted as the key figures. The first one is William Parsons who stayed in Philippines until 1914. The next year Ralph Harrington Doane took over the job till 1918 (Cody, 2003). After Doane, it was Filipino architects including Carlos Berrato, Juan M. Arellano, Antonio Toledo and and Tomás Mapúa sent to be trained in the US who were responsible for the execution (Salvan, 2000). Below is a list of buildings that were constructed by respective architects in Manila. It is based on a collection of documents and literature that the author can reach, which includes the major works but might not be exhaustive due to the limitation of resources.

In the narrative, two posts will elaborate on the impacts and implications of the execution – one in an architectural scale and another in an urban scale.


William Parsons

  • Educational Institutions: Intermediate School (1909), the University of Philippines Main Mall (1913), the Normal School (1914) and Central School (1914)
  • Social clubs: Manila Club (1908), Army-Navy Club (1908), YMCA (i.e. Young Men’s Christian Association in 1909) and Elks Club (1911)
  • Paco Municipal Market (1911)
  • Manila Hotel (1912)
  • Philippine General Hospital (1910)

Ralph Harrington Doane

  • Original Design of National Library

Juan M. Arellano and Tomás Mapúa

  • Central Post Office (1926)
  • Adapting the National Library to Hall of Justice (1926). This might be confusing since the planned Court House was not built and the library became the place for it which was originally designed by Doane

Antonio Toledo

  • Manila City Hall (1941)
  • Department of Agriculture (1930s)
  • Department of Finance

 

Photo of the Univeristy Hall © 1920, Facts and Figures about the Philippines by the Bureau of Printing Manila, as cited by John Tewell
Photo of the Univeristy Hall © 1920, Facts and Figures about the Philippines by the Bureau of Printing Manila, as cited by John Tewell
Postcard of the Normal School©1900-1920, Jonathan Best and Filipinas
Postcard of the Normal School©1900-1920, Jonathan Best and Filipinas
Photo of Manila Club Before Driveway was Laid © 1908, B.R.N. Murray
Photo of Manila Club Before Driveway was Laid © 1908, B.R.N. Murray
Photo of Army-Navy Club ©1937, I.Donahue
Photo of Army-Navy Club ©1937, I.Donahue
Photo of the YMCA Building © 1920, Facts and Figures about the Philippines by the Bureau of Printing Manila, as cited by John Tewell
Photo of the YMCA Building © 1920, Facts and Figures about the Philippines by the Bureau of Printing Manila, as cited by John Tewell
Photo of Army-Navy Club ©1937, I.Donahue
Photo of Army-Navy Club ©1937, I.Donahue
Photo of Elks Club with the Army and Navy Club behind ©1860-1960, Maryknoll
Photo of Elks Club with the Army and Navy Club behind ©1860-1960, Maryknoll
Photo of Paco Municipal Market © 1911, U.S. Library of Congress
Photo of Paco Municipal Market © 1911, U.S. Library of Congress
Photo of Manila Hotel©1912, David Brody
Photo of Manila Hotel©1912, David Brody
Front Facade of Philippine General Hospital © 1910, Architectural Record
Front Facade of Philippine General Hospital © 1910, Architectural Record
Central Post Office from Jones Bridge© 1930s, John Tewell
Central Post Office from Jones Bridge© 1930s, John Tewell
View from the Department of Agriculture towards Department of Finance, Hall of Justice and City Hall© 1950s-1960s, Original photograph by Harrison Forman, Annotated by Lin Zhixin
View from the Department of Agriculture towards Department of Finance, Hall of Justice and City Hall© 1950s-1960s, Original photograph by Harrison Forman, Annotated by Lin Zhixin

 

Burnham, D. H. (1905) ‘Report on Improvement of Manila’,  Sixth Annual Report of the Philippine Commission 1905. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 627-635.

Cody, J. W. (2003) ‘US Military Victories in 1898: Confidence, Commerce and Construction’,  Exporting American Architecture, 1870-2000 Planning, History and the Environment Series. London: Routledge, pp. 45-49.

Goodno, J. B. (2004) ‘Burnham’s Manila’, Planning, 70(11), pp. 6.

Salvan, G. S. (2000) ‘Philippines Architectural Character’,  Architectural & Const. Data: Goodwill Bookstore, pp. 219-236.

1 Comment on “The Built Public Institutions of Manila’s Plan

  1. Excellent sources. The historical documents are working well with the topics discussed in the “narratives” section. In fact, your critiques about the loss of the effects of the original plans can also be shown with other incongruent buildings or unbuilt buildings on site. Burnham’s plans do require certain completion and symmetry to suggest beauty and civility. The interest in socio-political intentions behind the architecture is well founded.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.