Contemporary Evaluation of Burnham’s Plan

This series of research paper and newspaper entries are written by Philippine architect and urban planner, Felino Palafox Jr, who urges to execute Burnham’s plan in contemporary Manila.

Research Paper: Palafox, F.A. (2015) Manila Megalopolis 2021 and Beyond: A Vision Plan towards Vertical Urbanism. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 2015 New York Conference. pp272-279

This research paper examines the current situation of Manila from various urban aspects and then proposed urban planning strategies for the development of Metro Manila. This is related to our research as Palafox affirms Burnham’s plan and regards it as a starting point of the future development of Metro Manila.

Newspaper: Palafox, F.A. (2005) 1905 Burnham plan for Manila. Philippine Daily Inquirer. [Online] 22nd August. Available from:,17091981&hl=zh-TW [Accessed: 19th Dec 2015].

“Had we developed the best practices in the world such as the cities of Washington DC, Paris, Venice and San Francisco, Manila would fit the title City Beautiful of the Orient as Burnham put it, ‘…the Pearl of the Orient’.” – Palafox, 2005
In this article, Palafox revisited Burnham’s Manila Plan. If Burnham’s plan was fully executed, Manila would become ‘the Pearl of the Orient’ as Burnham envisioned.

Philippine Daily Inquirer ©2005, Google Newspaper Archive

Newspaper: Palafox, F.A. (2014) Revisiting Daniel Burnham’s plan for Manila and Baguio (1). The Manila Times. [Online] 6th August. Available from: [Accessed: 19th Dec 2015].

 This article provides the five outlined proposal for Manila plan.

Newspaper: Palafox, F.A. (2014) The City Beautiful Movement and importance of breathing space. The Manila Times. [Online] 22nd October. Available from: [Accessed: 19th Dec 2015].

“Burnham worried about the problems that ‘congestion in city streets begets; at the toll of lives taken by disease when sanitary precautions are neglected’.” – Palafox, 2014
Palafox stated that the importance of the breathing space is not limited to its aesthetic purposes, but also to provide a healthier living for recreation and prevent pollution and congestion.

Newspaper: Palafox, F.A. (2014) Daniel Burnham’s plan for Manila designed for urban resiliency. The Manila Times. [Online] 29th October. Available from: ­[Accessed: 19th Dec 2015].

In this article, Palafox argued that Burnham’s plan was not only of aesthetic value but also strengthens urban resiliency.

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