Hanoi/ Official Structure and Ward Reality
Between the overall planning and administration structure on housing and the executor of the regulations and laws at the ward level, there is a huge gap from the centrality to the micro-scale experience. There was a complete system in designing urban strategies influenced by Soviet ideas but the ward officials operate in a moral context without appropriate administration and management mentioned in the conference. Also the upper levels didn’t give adequate supervision on wards. The most local scale of authority become part of the locality and disconnected with the centrality, which led to the uncontrolled informality and spontaneity of housing development around 1990.
- Kerkvliet, B.J.T. and Marr, D.G. eds., 2004. Beyond Hanoi: local government in Vietnam. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
- Koh, D.W.H., 2006. Wards of Hanoi. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
- Mizuno, K., Ishigami, K. and Kidokoro, T., 2000. Urban Development and Housing Sector in Viet Nam. JBIC REVIEW, (1), pp.130-135.