Overview – The Making of the Nation
1. Pre-Melaka History – A white-wash by UMNO
Pre-1403 UMNO attempt to hide all historical evidence and archeological findings,
1403 to 1511 Melaka established by Parameswara. (Iskandar Shah).
China gave protection to Melaka from the Siamese, allowing it to grow in peace.
1511 to 1641 Portuguese conquered Melaka. The remnants of the Sultanate escaped to form the Johore, Selangor, Pahang and Perak Sultanates.
1641 to 1842 Dutch capture Melaka from the Portuguese. End with Anglo-Dutch Treaty.
3: Resistance to British Colonial Expansion
Start: 1786 Francis Light leased Penang from Kedah Sultan for the British East India Company (BEIC).
17 March 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty: Britain control Singapore & Malaya. Dutch control Sumatra.
1895 British formed Federated Malay States (FMS: Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang).
4: Resisting Imperialism
Start: 1898 First declaration of national independence in Asia by Filipino nationalists. US buys Philippines after defeating Spain, and continues bloody conquest of the Philippines.
End: 1937 Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) set up by Ibrahim Haji Yaacob and Mustapha Hussain. Ishak Hj Muhammad and Che Dat Abdullah among young activists.
5: Resisting Japanese Fascism
Start: 18 Sept 1931 Japan invasion of China begins.
End: 17 Aug 1945 Indonesia declares independence after 350 years of resistance against Dutch colonialism.
KMM attempt to declare independence for Malaya.
6: British Reoccupation Sparks Nationalist Upsurge
Start: 3 Sept 1945 British forces reoccupy Malaya and set up British Military Administration
1 Apr 1946 British declared formation of Malayan Union,
May 1946 : UMNO formed to oppose Malayan Union. Co-operated with PUTERA-AMCJA. In the face of wide-spread opposition, the British backtracked but co-opted UMNO into another plan – Federation of Malaya Agreement, which they negotiated together with the Sultans. UMNO dropped their partners PUTERA-AMCJA as a result.
7: Colonial Repression Again
Early 1948 Repression of Malay left, especially API, led by Ahmad Boestamam. British
Federation of Malaya Agreement signed between the British, the Sultans and UMNO.
16 Jun 1948 – 31 Jul 1960 British declare Emergency against the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) who was fighting for Independence. The MCP set up the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA) as their fighting arm. British arrested all the leftist leaders to clear the way for UMNO to take power.
27 Feb, 1949: The Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) was formed by the Kuomintang (KMT) members, with implicit British support, as an alternative and in opposition to the Malayan Communist Party.
1 Oct 1949 China liberated. People’s Republic of China established with capital in Beijing.
8: Prelude to Independence
1951 Parti Islam Se-Malaysia formed by Hizbul Muslimin and UMNO religious activists.
6 Oct 1951 British High Commissioner, Henry Gurney, was assassinated by the MNLA,
1952 War against communists was not going well. British resorted to strategy of Winning Hearts And Minds (HAM). They reduced residential requirements for citizenship for non-Malays from 15 years to 10 years. More Malays were recruited into the civil service. Hand power gradually to a group of trusted politicians (UMNO) who would rule Malaya on British behalf and protect British interests.
Jul 1955: KL Municipal Elections. Tunku Abdul Rahman elected Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya.
1955: Rural seats given 15% advantage in votes,
1957: Merdeka – Islam slipped in as Official Religion for ceremonial purposes,
British condition for Independence: All three major races had to agree beforehand on terms of Independence.
The Malaysian Rat Race Part V, from post 65 onwards.
9. Neo-Colonialism – Transfer of power to UMNO with British control behind the scenes.
Start: 31 Aug 1957 Malaya declare independence. British hands power over to UMNO.
1960 Emergency Act replaced by ISA. UMNO promised that it would only be used against communist terrorists. Subsequently, the ISA was used mainly against UMNO’s poltical opponents.
Jan 1963 to Aug 1966 Confrontation: Dr Subandrio declared Confrontation against Malaysia. Local Elections suspended,
16 Sept 1963 Formation of Malaysia: British handed over Singapore, Sabah & Sarawak to form Malaysia.
9 Aug 1965: UMNO expelled Singapore from Malaysia.
P.Y. Wong, Rebuilding Malaysia: Rediscovering Malaysian History, 28 Mar 2010
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