Manila Plan: Precedents and Influences
1. Blackford M.G., (1993) The Lost Dream: Businessmen and City Planning on the Pacific Coast, 1890-1920. Ohio State University Press.
“to strengthen the public sense of the dignity and responsibility of citizenship”
This book explores the history of city planning in the five Pacific Coast cities in the United States (Seattle, Portland, Oakland, San Francisco, and Los Angeles) during the Progressive Era. Though the city planning consisted of diverse roots, Blackford shows that much of the early planning originated with businessmen who viewed it as a way to shape their urban environments both economically and socially. One of the chapter is under the title “Burnham’s Plan” which deals with Plan for San Francisco. It includes Burnham’s ideologies applied in Manila such as the designing of diagonal arteries and civic centers. The book also mentions the process of redesigning the programs and the figurative gridiron streets.
2. Burnham, D.H., and Bennett, E.H. (1993) Plan of Chicago. Edited by Charles Moore. New York: Princeton Architectural Press.
“Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood and probably themselves will not be realized.”
Along with Thomas Hine’s Burnham of Chicago, this is an additional book incorporated to refer back to the Burnham’s precedents. Though Manila Plan is not included, Burnham’s attempt to recreate his plan in a colonial setting is evidently shown through looking at his projects in the US. Burnham’s pursuit of creating the radiating streets and nodes of civic centers remain consistent throughout his City Beautiful Movement planning.
3. Chappell, S. (1980) The Plan of Chicago: 1909-1979. The Art Institute of Chicago: Burnham Library of Architecture
“Within him was an instinct groping outward. He wanted an example to give it form, breadth and a base for grand initiative. He wanted a vision, a picture materializing his yearnings.”
This book is published by the Burnham Library of Architecture in Chicago, which includes the exhibited images of 161 process drawings (maps, plans, sections and other architectural drawings and perspective renderings) in the making of Plan of Chicago. As the author praises Burnham’s effective presentation skills, the book also describes Burnham’s yearnings and careful decision making as he re-envisions the city of Chicago.