The History of Kolkata

Under three centuries back, Kolkata was a provincial region in Lower Bengal, a flat rice field mixed with a couple scattered towns on the riverbanks. Nobody would have said that a “city of castles” would in a matter of seconds emerge here. The nineteenth century, another time of improvement in business, changed this city into a focal point of exchange.

To be sure, the Kolkata region was thought to have potential as ahead of schedule as the Mughal period. In any case, it was in 1690 that Job Charnock understood the possibilities of this locale and established the frameworks of British Calcutta on the site of the Sutanuti, Govindapur and Kalikata towns on the eastern banks of the Hugli River. The port offices adjacent were not just permitted the British to venture out helpfully to their country, additionally served as a simple approach to import completed products and fare crude materials, since the principle motivation behind the British in coming to India was to extend global exchanging openings.

The opening of the Suez Canal gave an awesome inspiration to India’s outside exchange which in the five years from 1869, was running at a normal yearly estimation of fares and imports of ca. US$ 19 m (Fig. 1). The development of the port and trade pulled in the rustic poor to Calcutta looking for employments. Since the correspondence framework did not permit them to drive day by day they needed to live in the city itself in unsanitary and sub-human conditions which brought forth the supposed ghettos. Part of the ghettos comprised of the zones where the British populace’s hirelings lived with not by any means least offices.

One of Kolkata’s most striking attributes is its awesome congestion. The populace became most quickly in the early years of British Rule, duplicating about ten times amid the 40 years from 1710 to 1750. Lodging insights demonstrates that, in spite of the fact that the populace in the old town range expanded, all in all, around 50 times in around two centuries, the quantity of houses expanded just 11 times amid a similar period. It likewise gives the idea that the expansion in the quantity of houses amid the nineteenth century was just 14 for every penny, despite the fact that the populace increased at least 5 times.( Fig 2)

The 2001 Census reports an aggregate populace of 4,580,544 in Kolkata with a ghetto populace of 1,490,811. The present populace development rate is 0.4 for each penny, which implies that the development because of normal causes or movement is coordinated by the abatement in the populace because of death or different variables (Institute of Local Government and Urban Studies, 2001). Around 33% of the number of inhabitants in the CMC lives in the ghettos. There are 2,011 enlisted, and 3,500 unregistered ghettos in Kolkata.


(Dr. Nitai Kundu, The case of Kolkata, India, 2003)


(Dr. Nitai Kundu, The case of Kolkata, India, 2003)


Lynch, Kevin. The Image of the City. 1960.

Toskovic, Dobrivoje.  Interview by ETH Basel Studio.

Dr. Nitai Kundu, The case of Kolkata, India, 2003

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