Tokyo (1986) / From Utopia to Reality – Plan for Tokyo Bay
The Plan for Tokyo in 1960 act as a provoking argument and gesture towards the existing planning and social change with the rapid population and urban growth and the rise of automobile. When it comes to reality, the scale was too large for realization due to technological and political limitation.
In the following decades, the transportation system in Japan was not well improved and suit to the time. As Tange argued that the then transportation system was not capable for the city as a transmitter of information. The city center is mainly focused on offices and retail rather than living which mean commutation is required, however, the travelling time was 1.5 hour which is much more than the average 0.5 hour in other pivot city like Paris or New York which made Tokyo less productive and efficient. The deficiency in transportation system would eventually causes social and economic defect. Socially, due to the long commutation time and the zoning strategy that the city loses the interrelation with the suburban residential areas and people do not have extra time for social life and the social linkage would be weaker. Economically, apart from the lowered productivity, the failed in dispersing the city would cause the excessive price of land in the center area and reduce its competiveness with other foreign cities.
After twenty years, a softer and more up-to-date version of the monumental and strictly hierarchical structuralist order of spaces and movement networks that Tange had already put forward in his first earlier Tokyo plan that the visual impact and mass-housing issues concern were diminished. The1986 project for a “Tokyo Bay City Plan”, which proposed the creation of a system of large mixed use artificial islands, following his comprehensive and social oriented approach to planning and suggesting again an open-ended and linear pattern of urban growth. 
The new proposal was again based on an axis, consisting of several parallel transportation mainlines connecting Tokyo to the artificial islands on the bay and further to the cities across the bay. The major difference between the 1960 and the 1986 one was that the developments in the bay no longer formed a continuous megastructure. Instead, they were a series of artificial islands. The plan called for a two-phase exploitation of Tokyo Bay.
In the first phase, projects planned up to that point and those already under construction would be integrated into a Coastal City of Tokyo, out on the bay from the existing urban center of Tokyo. In the second phase, the axis of development would be extended all the way to Kisarazu on the opposite shore of the Tokyo Bay and a new city center would be created at the center of the bay. The ultimate objective was to create a new city serving international trade, the information industry, and financial services for the 21 century and disperse the commercial area along the bay.
The movement system, now consisting of a variety of infrastructure for public and private transportations and assuming a more accessible form, still dominated the whole plan as a generator of the new city. Compared to the 1960 plan, the 1986 plan was more practical yet still ambitious.  The civic axis and the strong hierarchical system with gigantic structure is replaced and simplified with the highway and transit system which are more adaptable to the then Tokyo plan and road system. The axes are more is more about local layout and could link to the ring road of the radial plan rather than a rigid loop system running straight to the city center. Yet, still applicable to the trend of reclamation in Tokyo Bay area and set the sustainable precedence.
 Pernice, Raffaele. “Modern Japanese Waterfront developments-global vs. local.” Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering 237 (2007).
 Pernice, Raffaele. “Japanese Urban Artificial Islands: An Overview Of Projects And Schemes For Marine Cities During 1960S-1990S.” Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ) 74, no. 642 (January 2009): 1847-855. doi:10.3130/aija.74.1847.
 Lin, Zhongjie. Kenzo Tange and the Metabolist Movement: Urban Utopias of Modern Japan. New York: Routledge, 2010.