Ankara (1929-35)- Theoretical Influences & Planning Principles- Part 3: Hermann Jansen’s Design Principles & Implementation on Ankara’s Initial Master Planning (1)

It was reported that although Jansen’s master plan for Ankara was deeply influenced by the main principles in Lörcher Plan prepared for Ankara in 1924-1925 (Cengizkan, 2002), which emphasized on the establishment of zones and their organization, and formation of a neighborhood for workers, under the contestants by the local government of Ankara, (2002, 57, 58), he had successfully adapted, interpreted and eliminated those principles with extra attention to the historical fabric of the historic city around the citadel (Bozdoğan, 2001, 70).

In the planning decisions of the master plan of Ankara, its design ideology on specific aspects can be reviewed through the letter from submitted by Jansen dated 17 October 1927 to the local government. The13 principles, listed in the letter, have been divided into 4 categories in the following: General Zoning’s principles of Ankara, Transportation Consideration, Communal life and Public Space Design in the City, and Mechanism of individual Districts.

General Zoning’s principles of Ankara
• “The new settlement should be attached to the old city in order to be perceived clearly as an addition, and the buildings and the urban form should be reorganized
• A scattered development would be more appropriate rather than a very large city;
• Several zones were established, which were basically an administrative area, a quarter for foreign consulate buildings, a quarter for university, an industrial area and residential areas.

Transportation
• Road traffic within the city should be paid attention;
• “Urban aesthetics was the primary concern and the Citadel was considered as “the city crown”,
• Roads were designed short, straight, narrow and suitable for the topographical conditions in order to achieve a feasible design

Public Space Design/ Communal Life in the City
• A healthy urban environment was secured through green areas, sports grounds, playgrounds for children, parks and recreational areas
• A stadium and concourses should be built” (Cengizkan, 2004, 105).
• It is compulsory to integrate green areas with the city for a healthy and modern urban environment;

Mechanism of individual Districts

• Residential areas were divided into 18 sections (Siedlungs) and different development patterns were introduced for each
• Houses were designed as either detached or attached and each house had front and rear gardens•
• The location of industrial areas was determined according to transport availability (mainly railway transport) and the dominant wind•
• A commercial area was not included in the plan, rather the existing city center was considered as the traditional commercial center, which would continue to function as before
• Green belts were introduced connecting the old and the new city, which created traffic free routes for pedestrians”

In this section, design ideology and its implementation on the master planning of Ankara by Jansen concerning General zoning’s principles of Ankara and Transportation organization will be discussed.

General Zoning’s principles of Ankara

• Several zones were established, which were basically an administrative area, a quarter for foreign consulate buildings, a quarter for university, an industrial area and residential areas.

docscan-6g

Taken influence from Lörcher’s and Fritsch’s hierarchical zoning, Jansen showed priority in his plan, with fine houses at the center of new town, industries, working population and country houses at the fragile of city.

• “The new settlement should be attached to the old city in order to be perceived clearly as an addition, and the buildings and the urban form should be reorganized

In the initial planning, Ankara was divided into two parts by Jansen, as the old city and the new city, adjacent to each other.

docscan-6a

Distinguished by the building form, settlements in new town has taken an adaptive geometric form of garden city settlement and modernized unit typology, which were differentiated to old town unregulated urban form and tradition units.

ankara_overview_from_citadel

• A scattered development would be more appropriate rather than a very large city;

Jansen Hermann  (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara: Grund- und Lageplan 1:2000, Teilblatt 3B, Altstadt. Tusche über Lichtpause auf Transparent, 82,00 x 141,30 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22707.
Jansen Hermann (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara: Grund- und Lageplan 1:2000, Teilblatt 3B, Altstadt. Tusche über Lichtpause auf Transparent, 82,00 x 141,30 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22707.

Respecting the historical context of Ankara, Jansen has supposed to restrict the height of new construction to maximum three-story high in order to maintain the city profile. Impacted by the garden city ideology, Jansen placed much importance on formation of a neighborhood. Hence, his proposal on a scattered development was the product of his manipulation of urban scale to preserve accessibility of nature for city dwellers and bond urban life with the pleasure of environment.

Transportation
• Road traffic within the city should be paid attention;

Jansen Hermann  (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara: Planschema zur Kanalisation 1:20000. Tusche, Tinte farbig auf Transparent, 53,50 x 48,50 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22596.
Jansen Hermann (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara: Planschema zur Kanalisation 1:20000. Tusche, Tinte farbig auf Transparent, 53,50 x 48,50 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22596.
Jansen Hermann  (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara: Planschema zur Kanalisation 1:20000. Tusche auf Transparent, 47,00 x 41,50 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22597.
Jansen Hermann (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara: Planschema zur Kanalisation 1:20000. Tusche auf Transparent, 47,00 x 41,50 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22597.

In activate the city into a comprehensive system with the establishment of zones, Jansen has set great store by the transition through zones. In initial planning of Ankara, a rigid framework of railway transportation system has been placed throughout the city according to its topographical conditions, which influenced the organization of zoning and even the establishment of an accessible community.

• “Urban aesthetics was the primary concern and the Citadel was considered as “the city crown”,

Jansen Hermann  (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara. Teilbebauungsplan innere Stadt: Lageplan 1:500 Haci Dogan Viertel, Straßenprofile 1:100. Tusche auf Transparent, 191,80 x 103,10 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22770.
Jansen Hermann (1869-1945), Gesamtbebauungsplan Ankara. Teilbebauungsplan innere Stadt: Lageplan 1:500 Haci Dogan Viertel, Straßenprofile 1:100. Tusche auf Transparent, 191,80 x 103,10 cm (inkl. Scanrand). Architekturmuseum der Technischen Universität Berlin Inv. Nr. 22770.

For the streetscape design, Jansen’s urban aesthetics is a hybrid form of Sitte’s and Howard’s idea. It is observed from the initial plan and section that large portion of street scape in Jansen’s design was composed by greenery and modern architectural language.

In the planning of new urban fibers, Jansen has shown great respect to the historical context of the old town. In the master plan of Ankara, the new town design has straightly followed the existing old town, and developed to surround it, and has made the old town as the commercial center of Ankara. Hence, importance of the Citadel has been emphasized, centered by the new urban fibers.

• Roads were designed short, straight, narrow and suitable for the topographical conditions in order to achieve a feasible design

1

Following his idea on formation of a neighborhood, Jansen has followed Sitte’s picturesque streetscape approach that street design was following the natural landscape in a suitable scale. Roads were designed short, straight and suitable to provide intimacy for community.

From the above discussion on urban zoning and transportation, it concluded that Jansen’s initial master planning not only has been deeply influenced by the figures discussed previously, but as the urban planner of Ankara implemented the theories adaptive to turkey current situation and give localized situation to improve the urban scheme, with a vision to not only construct more efficient city and a better communal life for people, but maintain the tradition and historical value of Turkey in the process of modernization.

Bibliography:

Camillo Sitte, ‘City Planning According to Artistic Principles’, 1889

CENGİZKAN, A. Modernin Saati: 20. Yüzyılda Modernleşme ve Demokratikleşme Pratiğinde Mimarlar, Kamusal Mekân ve Konut Mimarlığı [The Hour of the Modern: Architects, Public Space and Housing in Modernization and Democratization Practices of the Twentieth Century] Mimarlar Derneği and Boyut Yayın Grubu, Ankara, 2002

Duygu SABAN ÖKESLİ, ‘HERMANN JANSEN’S PLANNING PRINCIPLES AND HIS URBAN LEGACY IN ADANA’, METU JFA, Volume 2, 2009

Ebenezer Howard, Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform,1898

Ebenezer Howard, Garden Cities of Tomorrow, 1902

Theodor Fritsch, Die Stadt der Zukunft (The City of the Future), 1887

Lawrence J. Vale, Architecture, Power and National Identity, Yale University Press, 2008

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.