Hiroshima/ 1975-1980/ 2nd Greenery Movement/ Involvement of Private Sector and Citizens
The second Greenery Movement was implemented in 1975, right after the mayor’s speech of “Declaration of Greenery”, as a follow-up scheme to improve the environmental quality and tackle the issue of fragmentation of green spaces in Hiroshima. (Nakagoshi 2006) In the 2nd movement, citizens and private sector were involved in the Movement in additional to the authority. A greenery fund was set up to provide financial incentives and an official commendation for greenery institutions, as well as the Hiroshima City Greenery Promotion Committee which composed members from academics, industry and commerce fields.
Due to the rapid economic growth in Japan from the 60s, mass migration of people into cities occurred in the country not to mention Hiroshima. It resulted at an uncontrollable exploitation of the suburb area in the city. (Nakagoshi 2006) Perishable temporary wood housings were erected illegally which also led to social disorder. The situation can be analyzed in the following maps of the landscape which the residential area has expanded from the central delta area to the area along valleys.
Between the first and the second phases of the Greenery Movement, most of the farmlands in the areas along valleys were changed to residential use as an extension of the central delta area when the maps of 1948 and 1970 Hiroshima. The abundance of forests in the city was 77.4% in 1948 which dropped to 74.1% in 1970 while that of farmland was 18.9% in 1948 which decreased to 15.2% in 1970 by the replacement of expanded residential areas along valleys and central delta from 3.7% to 10.7% of the city’s area in the same period of time. (Nokazu Nakagoshi 1999)
Among vegetation in the city, only 0.3% are natural forest and others are occupied by secondary/ artificial forests with the dominance of evergreen trees.
From these figures, an active urban growth can be conserved in the process of restoration from the atomic bomb. Since flatlands, where residential area concentrated at, are along hillsides and the delta area, Greenery in Hiroshima started to lose contact with each other.
To solve the fragmentation problem, redevelopment of greenery along the valleys were carried out as an additional green corridor from the north to south. At the same time, a considerable amount of trees were planted on publicly owned lands. It was named the Draft for Future Master Plan of Greenery in advance to the Comprehensive Greenery Plan in 1986.
Nokazu Nakagoshi, Toshihiro Moriguchi. “Ecosystem and biodiversity conservation planning in Hiroshima City, Japan.” Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1999: 149-154.\
Planning and Coordination Department, Planning and General Affairs Bureau. “Chapter 1 City Vision and Development Concepts.” The City of Hiroshima. 2015. http://www.city.hiroshima.lg.jp/www/sp/contents/1274674816295/index.html (accessed 12 8, 2016).