Hiroshima/ 1988/ Greenery Movement/ Master Plan of Greenery
Greenery in cities has been known as recreational spaces, wildlife refuges and an essential cities’ component. It is also important to a city as maintenance and management of biodiversity. A quality green space reflects a good planning as well as suggests a healthy environment for living no matter human-being, wildlife or vegetation. (Nakagoshi 2006) The effect of citizens’ mentalities and lifestyle will radically impact on the composition of greenery spaces in cities.
In Hiroshima, a city has emphasized on greenery for long, to deal with the issue attributed to the growth of the city (More information can be found in Hiroshima/ 1975-1980/ 2nd Greenery Movement/ Involvement of Private Sector and Citizens), the government has employed zoning plan to clarify the function of different greenery spaces within the prefecture in a more defined way on corresponding roles and functions.
In order to raise the public awareness of and involvement in greenery activities in the city planning, as mentioned above, citizens have the power to alter the composition of the greenery, a questionnaire of 3000 persons on greenery awareness has been conducted before the Master Plan of Greenery and has been continued onwards. Among 45.1% of the respondents, 95% of them thought forests in Hiroshima should be protected. Many of them are willing to participate in forest and park clean-up activities and increase the plantation in own households. (Nokazu Nakagoshi 1999)
In the Master Plan of Greenery in 1988 Hiroshima, the roles of greenery were defined in existence and use from the view of “open space” through the aspects of environmental protection, conservation of the ecosystem, recreation, disaster prevention and landscape composition. (Nokazu Nakagoshi 1999)
Greenery areas under the Master Plan were categorized into five zones.
- The Inland Zone was a recovered zone from exploitation with a recreation-aimed forest around the city. The importance of the zone is to conserve the origin of the river in the city.
- The New Urban Zone was residential-concentrated zone. Greenery was established as a connection of water and greenery between rivers and residential areas on the flat lands along hillsides. The zone is in linear form.
- The Aogakiyama Zone was a guardian greenbelt that frames the natural landscape and the Delta Urban Zone as for its convergent property of six rivers and urban area in a slope.
- The Delta Urban Zone was the largest flatland where city centre Greeneries were distributed in private lands, road, factories and roofs.
- Islands Zone where composited by forests and natural coastline in the Seto Inland Sea.
The Plan, on one hand, was collaborating the five zones in preserving the natural forests, restoring the greenery from over-exploitation and linking all the green spaces in the prefecture together. On the other, the effect of the Plan was ensured by pined point to the attitudes of citizens.
Kim, Jae-Eun. “Recovery of greenery resources in Hiroshima City after World.” In Diversity of ecological restoration in East Asia, 111. 118: International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer, 2006.
Nakagoshi, Nobukazu and Watanabe, Sonoko, Kim, Jae-Eun. Social Capacity dor Environmental Management for Recovery of Greenery Resources in Hiroshima. Discussion Paper, Hiroshima: Graduate School of International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 2006.
Nokazu Nakagoshi, Toshihiro Moriguchi. “Ecosystem and biodiversity conservation planning in Hiroshima City, Japan.” Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1999: 149-154.
Planning and Coordination Department, Planning and General Affairs Bureau. “Chapter 1 City Vision and Development Concepts.” The City of Hiroshima. 2015. http://www.city.hiroshima.lg.jp/www/sp/contents/1274674816295/index.html (accessed 12 8, 2016).