Hiroshima/1950-1988/Greenery Movement/ Changes on City’s Focus
.SHIFT OF DEVELOPMENT FOCUS
The 1st Greenery Movement was started in 1952, right after the bombardment of the atomic bomb and the failure of reconstruction plan in 1946. Recovery of the city, not only from the destroyed buildings but also the mentalities of citizens from fears and the living environment, was the burning issue at the time. The government took the leading role in setting up a new image of the city as Peace City by constructing parks, in the city under the Peace Memorial Construction Law. (More information of the new city can be found in Hiroshima/ Importance of Zoning in the Post-war Development of Hiroshima)
In the 1970s, the reconstruction of the delta centre, the most devastating zone by the atomic bomb, has been completed. The focus of the development changed to improve the quality of the city by solving issues generated from the population growth under the rapid economic growth and the migration of people into the city like the illegal woody structures in the valleys areas. Reconstruction of these areas and remedy the situation of fragmentation of greenery spaces in the prefecture were carried out in the 2nd Greenery Movement. (More information of the new city can be found in Hiroshima/ 1988/ Greenery Movement/ Master Plan of Greenery)
.CHANGE OF LEADING ROLE IN THE MOVEMENT
The difference between the two Greenery Movement in the 1950s and 1970s is the leading sector. Hiroshima government took an active role in planning and creating a new image of Hiroshima as Peace City, fading the image of military production city in the WWII. In the 2nd Greenery Movement, after settling down the city, the government involve public and private sectors in the city to compose the Hiroshima City Greenery Promotion Committee (Kim 2006). It intended to cooperate the public and the government in the city planning of greenery by adapting their views towards greenery. A more trailer made city planning were implemented in the 2nd Movement.
. CHANGE IN CITY FABRIC/ MERGE OF “CHO” INTO THE CITY
According to the Planning and Coordination Department of Hiroshima (2015), in the 1st Hiroshima Basic Plan published in 1970, the 19 municipalities nearby the Hiroshima City were to be merged with the City. The process took 5 years and finished in 1975, it suggested the reason for rapid population growth and the fragmentation of greenery which were the focus of the 2nd Greenery Movement.
.INTRA-CITY TO INTER-CITIES AND OVERSEAS
The mass transportation systems of the city also changed from within the city to connecting with other cities between the two Movements.
Hiroshima Airport was completed in 1961 as a cross cities facility, as well as the electric Sanyo Hosen railway in 1964 and the Shin-Hiroshima Bypass on the National Highway in 1966. The transportation network was improved in 1975 by the establishment of the entire Sanyo Shinkansen line. The city started to face the whole world in 1979 when the 1st jet aircraft from the Western landed at the Hiroshima Airport, together with the completion of the Western Hiroshima Development Project in 1982. (Planning and Coordination Department, 2015)
Kim, Jae-Eun. “Recovery of greenery resources in Hiroshima City after World.” In Diversity of ecological restoration in East Asia, 111. 118: International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer, 2006.
Nokazu Nakagoshi, Toshihiro Moriguchi. “Ecosystem and biodiverity conservation planning in Hiroshima City, Japan.” Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1999: 149-154.
Planning and Coordination Department, Planning and General Affairs Bureau. “Chapter 1 City Vision and Development Concepts.” The City of Hiroshima. 2015. http://www.city.hiroshima.lg.jp/www/sp/contents/1274674816295/index.html (accessed 12 8, 2016).