Hvidt, Martin. ‘The Dubai Model: An Outline of Key Development-process Elements in Dubai.’ Journal paper. 2009
This paper examines Dubai’s development since the 1990s from nine parameters: Government-led development (ruler-led), Fast decision making and “fast track” development, Flexible labour force, Bypass of industrialisation–creation of a service economy, Internationalization of service provision, Creation of investment opportunities, Supply-generated demand (“first mover”), Market positioning via branding, and Development in cooperation with international partners. It argues that the apparent developmental success of Dubai may be understood as the outcome of conscious policies conducted by a “late–late” developing state in order to “catch up” with the “developed world.” Even in a government-controlled and neopatrimonial economic environment, Dubai has created circumstances where the virtues of neoliberalism seem to coexist with state dirigism. Yet the country faces a challenge of sustainability. Certain of the Dubai’s risks and vulnerabilities are unlikely to disappear in the short to medium term: the dependence on foreign workers, the asset bubbles in real estate, regional security problems, and issues related to political leadership.