Shanghai (1927-1937) / Landscape Style

In the Greater Shanghai Plan, besides formulating the architectural style for buildings, landscape design was also an important part. That was apparently influenced by the western urban renewal movement.

Under the suggestion of Gong Shiji, the vacant space and gardens in the city center area were used to build parks around the municipal government buildings. The Sijingjiao Stadium, Jiangwan Hippodrome and Yuandong Stadium were preserved. The First Shanghai City Park was a typical Park built in that period. It located on the west part of city center municipal area. At that time the largest park in Shanghai, Zhaoping Park was 300 mu (200,000m2). The recession park in the Bund is only 30 mu; the Gujiazhai Park in the French recession is 172 mu; and the Hongkou Park is 243 mu. The design strategy of First Shanghai City Park greatly referenced the western landscape planning. The master plan, spot organizing and planting configuration were all in western style. Only the pile of rockery showed some of the features of Chinese garden. While in 1934, for holding the 6th National Games, the First Shanghai City Park was reconstructed as stadium. It was only completed for one year at that time. And most parts of the open space in the park were all turned into sports sites.

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Another example was the Wusong Park. The original land where Wusong Park were built was deserted public empty land. In the design, the narrow and long landform and orderly set-up pattern is the major impression that the park revealed. Parterres and thatched pavilions were carefully set up. Wusong Park was next to Huangpu River and face north to the Yangtze River. The park was built in December 1931 and only used two month finishing the construction. But most of the park was destroyed during the Incident of January in the war.

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Besides the public parks, the large greenbelt and squares in the cross scenery axis were also important part of the city open space. In the design and planning process, the space obligation and general control were attached great importance. The bronze statue of prime minister was established behind the municipal government building. And a large piece of open space was used to set off the statue. Other factors like bridge and street lamp were also regarded important. The bridges newly built in the city center are at that time all used reinforced concrete as the material. The facade was palace style. And the street lamps on it also had the influence of the ‘Chinese Inherent Style’ of the government building.

 

Reference

Shanghai Shi Zhong Xin Qu Yu Jian She Wei Yuan Hui 上海市中心区域建设委员会, Shanghai Shi Shi Zhong Xin Qu Yu Jian She Wei Yuan Hui Dang An 上海市市中心区域建设委员会档案

Shanghai Shi Gong Wu Ju 上海市工务局, Shanghai Shi Gong Wu Ju Ye Wu Bao Gao Di 9-10 Qi 上海市工务局业务报告第9-10期

Shanghai Shi Zhong Xin Qu Yu Jian She Wei Yuan Hui 上海市中心区域建设委员会, Shanghai Shi Shi Zhong Xin Qu Yu Jian She Wei Yuan Hui Ye Wu Bao Gao Di Er Qi 上海市市中心区域建设委员会业务报告第二期

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