As a way of preserving the image of cultural heritage in downtown Yangon as well as finally establishing a building-permit process (Aye, Yangon zoning plan expected this year 2016), the Yangon regional government has implemented categories of different height restriction …

Yangon (2007-2017) / Height Restriction Policies That Shape Both the Urban and Economic Landscape Read more »

Various local NGOs and spokepersons argue that the current property laws in Myanmar lack an updated framework, transparency and effective implementation. It perhaps does not provide appropriate laws to deal with issues aroused from the transitioning government or the opening …

Yangon (2007-2017) / Uncertain Property Ownership and Regulations Creating a Playing Field Read more »

The empty plot next to the Hyundai Department Store remained as a long-pending headache both for the Seoul Metropolitan Government and the related interest groups since it remained empty only to suggest different possible ideas that were never fulfilled. It …

Seoul / Gangnam: The City of Four Tools (1990-2000) : 1,2,3,4 Hyundai Department Store Apgujeong Branch(2) Read more »

Myanmar has had little cohesive urban and economic development in close to a century, in part due to various isolationist policies imposed by the authoritative governance in the 1960’s and 1970’s, and sanctions imposed by the international community to pressure …

Yangon (2007-2017) / The Geopolitical Play of Foreign Interests in the Greenfield Read more »

As the trend of entertainment developed into the form of shopping, the areas of housing, education, and consumerism started to overlap and together create a point of intersection at Gangnam, which was Hyundai Department Store. It was where progressive urban …

Seoul / Gangnam: The City of Four Tools (-1990) : 1,2,3 Hyundai Department Store Apgujeong Branch(1) Read more »

The architectural as well as urban development of Istanbul have much to do with its political circumstances. For it had gone through a rapid change in political status in the region since early 1900s. These series of threads aim to …

ISTANBUL (1930-40S) / 5. FATALITY OF PEOPLE’S HOUSE: STRUCTURE AND POWER OVER PEOPLE Read more »

While new types of performances were coming up to the surface, a community of small offices for new entertainment industry had been quietly utilizing backstreets of Apgujeong. By the mid-1990s, interest in the electronic and graphic entertainment industry was growing …

Seoul / Gangnam: The City of Four Tools (1990-2000) : 4-3 Backstreets and Boulevards Read more »

Chaloemtiarana, Thak. “Through racing goggles: modernity, the west, ambiguous Siamese alterities and the construction of Thai nationalism.” SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 31, no. 2 (2016): 532-574. This journal is mainly about some key figures in Thailand who got involved …

Bangkok (1932-1942)/ Construction of Thai Nationalism Read more »

A long procession of cars carrying high officials on the opening day of Ratchadamnoen Boulevard, 24 June 1941. Source:  National Archive, Bangkok. P.002 NA(O) 1-27.   The new space of the Central Ratchadamnoen Boulevard, photographed in 1946. Source: National Archive, Bangkok. …

Bangkok (1932-1942)/ Ratchadamnoen Boulevard in 1941 Read more »

Noobanjong, Koompong. Power, identity, and the rise of modern architecture: From Siam to Thailand. Universal-Publishers, 2003. This book analyzes the relationship between the power of the state and identity of local people, and how they could affect architecture and urban planning …

Bangkok (1932-1942)/ Searching for Identity during Modernization Read more »

Sirikiatikul, Pinai. Remaking modern Bangkok: Urban renewal on Rajadamnern Boulevard, 1932-1957. University of London, University College London (United Kingdom), 2007. This thesis introduces the history of the urban renewal project on the boulevard from 1932 to 1957 and provided readers …

BANGKOK (1932-1942) / A Study of Urban Renewal on Ratchadamnoen Boulevard in 1932-1957 Read more »

Turquoise Mountain are an international NGOs whose aim is to ‘protect heritage and communities at risk around the world and to provide jobs, education, and a renewed sense of pride”¹. There inject themselves into communities that are at risk of …

Turquoise Mountain and the educating the Public on Heritage conservation Read more »

To establish a new constitutional government in Thailand, the People’s Party started its revolution from below and seemingly gained a huge success after the coup in 1932 together with effective political policies afterwards to prevent Thailand from being colonized1. However, …

Bangkok (1932-1942) / 2.3 Abortion of the 1937 Previous Scheme Read more »

Taiwan, as the first ever colony of Japan, holds a great significance, as a model colony. Transforming it in a way the Japanese desires so that it would further benefit the Japanese Empire and its quest to colonise other places …

From Chinese rural settlement to Japanese colonial modernisation module Read more »

The architectural as well as urban development of Istanbul have much to do with its political circumstances. For it had gone through a rapid change in political status in the region since early 1900s. These series of threads aim to …

ISTANBUL (1930-40S) / 3. POLITICAL IDEALS: ARCHITECTURE ENGENDERS MODERN TURKEY Read more »

After the consolidation of the RPP in 1931, villages and peasants in rural areas became the focus of Kemalism’s “civilising mission” to “manufacture Turkish citizens” and infuse Nationalist consciousness to the countryside. Ideologically, socially, politically and educationally, this mission is …

ISTANBUL (1930-40s) / TYPOLOGY OF INSTITUTIONAL DEVICE: MODEL VILLAGE — IDEOLOGY OF CIVILISATION IN RURAL AREAS Read more »

Under the RPP’s new regime, formal schools and institutes took on an important role for institutional and social reform. From an architectural point of view, the schools had evolved prototypically from the first decade of the Republican period to 1940s …

ISTANBUL (1930-40s) / TYPOLOGY OF INSTITUTIONAL DEVICE: PUBLIC INSTITUTES — TYPOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT FROM OTTOMAN REVIVALISM TO MODERNISM Read more »

With the rising power of Phibun (his regime from 1938-1944), who intended to destroy monarchy completely, the tendency to reduce the authority of the monarchy directly influenced the architecture and urban planning afterwards. Modern architecture was used as to turn …

Bangkok (1932-1942) /3.3 The Transformation of Ratchadamnoen Boulevard in 1939-1941 Led by the State Read more »