JERUSALEM(2000-2017) | GOVERNMENTALITIES OF INFRASTRUCTURE | History of Israeli rule in East Jerusalem’s Infrastructural Services
“ Stabilization Era ”
From 1967 to the late 1990s, it was often defined as the “stabilization era” in which East Jerusalem was still under the former governmental structure patronaged by Jordanian as a result of Palestinian resistance and the inability of the Israeli public administration to operate in the contested annexed land. Israel’s failure attempting to assert its judicial sovereignty over East Jerusalem as well as the prevailing nationalist movement had led to a result that the Jordanian governmental dominance in the area was preferred. Under Jordanian auspices during this period, local Palestinians were performing “counter conduct” to resist Israeli govern-mentality and control of Palestinian urban infrastructure which would have penetrated and intervened their identity and the conduction of everyday life. These resistance took forms of strikes, noncooperation, and legal proceedings and they were in fact relatively effective to against Israeli attempts to take control of Palestinian urban infrastructure. The disassociation from the Israeli administration was manifested through the maintaining of independent management of Palestinian infrastructure networks such as public transport and electricity.
“ Dual Governmental Era ”
A shift in governmental constellation after the 1987 Palestinian Intifada signals the second configuration of “dual governmental era”. It was also recognized as a result of the establishment of new social and political networks by the Palestinian Liberation Organisation aiming to weaken the former Jordanian dominance and combat Israeli ruling apparatus. The stepping up of mutual violence in East Jerusalem had led to the constant withdrawal of Israeli agencies and triggered the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority which contributed to the institutionalization of East Jerusalem as the capital of the future Palestinian state. By gaining control and management of urban infrastructure and institutions, the Palestinian National Authority sought to dominate East Jerusalem by replacing Jordanian education curriculum with the local one, expanding the size of security forces and establishing political and national agencies. These were regarded as a solid manifestation of Palestinian self-governance and counter-governmentality.
“ Governmentalization Era ”
At the turn of the millennium, political events such as the second Intifada outbreaks and the establishment of the separation walls, have intensified urban conflicts and triggered deeper violence rupture. The devastating impact on the East Jerusalem had finally led to the new era of governmentalization, in which Israeli agencies started intervening with infrastructure and services in East Jerusalem. This period is also described as “the fall of Arab Jerusalem” by famous historian Cohen.
Due to decades of violent clashes governmental support, most of the Palestinian urban infrastructure had come near to a point of collapse providing a ground for the proliferation of all kinds of informal services. The political and functional degeneration of city facilitated Israeli intervention to gain control over the Palestinian infrastructure and services to avoid urban failure and further achieve what the Israeli claimed as a “ unified city ”. Being trapped and segregated in space by the walls with failing urban infrastructure, the Palestinians had no choice but to rely on Israeli agencies to stabilize and fix their dysfunctioning urban infrastructure and services.
- Dumper, M. (1997). The politics of Jerusalem since 1967. New York: Columbia Uni- versity Press.
- Cohen, H. (2011). The rise and fall of Arab Jerusalem 1967-2007. New York: Rutledge. Dean, M. (2010). Governmentality: Power and rule in modern society. Sage
- Klein, M. (2001). Jerusalem: The contested city. London: Hurst and company.
- Cohen, H. (2011). The rise and fall of Arab Jerusalem 1967-2007. New York: Rutledge.
- Boano, C., & Marten, R. (2013). Agamben’s urbanism of exception: Jerusalem’s border mechanics and biopolitical strongholds. Cities, 34, 6e17.
- Klein, M. (2005). Old and new walls in Jerusalem. Political Geography, 24(1), 53e76.