1975 Ulaanbaatar Plan: The Green Corridor
Green corridor in Ulaanbaatar (Source from Ulaanbaatar National Archives)
The Master plan of Ulaanbaatar in the 1975 was proposed by the “Giprogor”, the Institute in Russia. The plan aimed to limit the expansion of urban population. (JICA and MRTCUD, 2009) To form a socialist community, the Soviet focused on promoting industry, transportation, housing and public green space, at the same time, limiting the expansion of city. (Pallot and Shaw, 1981) The 1975 Ulaanbaatar plan has a rational zoning of land uses. The dominant character is the green corridor extending along the central axis through the Sükhbaatar Square and a pedestrian-only public park from east to west. The extensive land (green on plan) was reserved for public leisure, which is a manifestation of soviet planning – providing a human place with highest aesthetic and cultural standard through maximization of open space. The red areas surrounding the Sükhbaatar Square were where commercial activities took place. The headquarters of the Ulaanbaatar Bank, the headquarters of Golomt Bank, the Mongolian Stock Exchange building, the Mongolian Telecommunications Building were located around this civic center. The black spots were the governmental bodies and museums- Government Palace, National Museum of Mongolia, Mongolian Natural History Museum and The Fine Arts Zanabazar Museum. Educational institutions such as the National University of Mongolia and Mongolian University of Science and Technology were marked orange on the plan. It is common in soviet planning that public amenities and workplaces are in an accessible distance. Another remarkable feature in the 1975 plan is the new apartment areas (reddish orange on plan) constructed in the area where 47.8% of Ulaanbaatar population lived. High density of Soviet-style apartments were brought to Ulaanbaatar. The grey areas on plan were the heavy industries introduced near the Tuul River at the time to secure the economic base of the city. Overall speaking, the Russian Institute “Giprogor” had projected their soviet ideologies to Ulaanbaatar through urban planning. The public spaces are in great importance to promote a harmonious socialist city.
JICA and MRTCUD (2009) The study on city master planand urban development program of Ulaanbaatar city,JICA in Ulaanbaatar.
Pallot, Judith and Shawww, Denis J.B. (1981) Planning in the Soviet Union, Croom Helm Ltd.