Living Condition in Kampong
Figure 1: Construction of Roads
Figure 2: Housings Along River
Figure 3: Road of Kampong
Figure 4: Access to Road
The images illustrate the kampongs in 1980s, showing the condition of kampong before Kampong Improvement Program. the road system was lack of sewer system and the residents created their own “infrastructure” to get access to the road from their housings. Due to lack of proper sewer system, the road was used as an open sewerwhich made the village more vulnerable to flooding.
Devas, Nick. “Indonesia’s Kampung Improvement Program: An Evaluative Case Study.” Ekistics 48, no. 286 (1981): 19-36. http://www.jstor.org.eproxy.lib.hku.hk/stable/43620193.