Living Condition in Kampong

Figure 1: Construction of Roads

Figure 2: Housings Along River

Figure 3: Road of Kampong

Figure 4: Access to Road



The images illustrate the kampongs in 1980s, showing the condition of kampong before Kampong Improvement Program. the road system was lack of sewer system and the residents created their own “infrastructure” to get access to the road from their housings. Due to lack of proper sewer system, the road was used as an open sewerwhich made the village more vulnerable to flooding.


Picture Source:

Devas, Nick. “Indonesia’s Kampung Improvement Program: An Evaluative Case Study.” Ekistics 48, no. 286 (1981): 19-36.

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