Kamal Muara’s Vulnerability to Floods and Land Subsidence
Kamal Muara is a kampung located in the north of Jakarta, right on the edge of the coast by Jakarta Bay. Due to its geographic location, it is directly exposed to high tides which cause frequent sea inundation. This increases the risk of Kamal Muara submerged in water up to 1 metre. Thus, it is marked as a “red zone” where land subsidence level can be up to -3 metres . This causes severe damage on infrastructure such as cracks and uneven levels of the road. This means that fragmented parts of the infrastructure could float on water putting residents in danger.
Fig 1. Damages caused on infrastructure within Kamal Muara
(Reference: Image from Land Subsidence and Urban Development in Jakarta (Indonesia). 2009 on pg. 11)
On top of this, Kamal Muara has poor drainage and waste management system. These worsen the condition of the village when flooding occurs as they lead to clogged up drains, making it extremely difficult to remove water submerging the entire village. Hence, this creates an unhygienic environment prone to diseases such as diarrhea and cholera due to unsafe drinking water.
Fig 2. Land subsidence levels measured between 1925 – 2015 in different part of Jakarta
(Reference: Map from Insight look the subsidence impact to infrastructures in Jakarta and Semarang area; Key for adaptation and mitigation on pg. 2)
These critical conditions of Kamal Muara are related to the government’s neglection in developing the rural areas in the 90s. Their inability to provide proper facilities to equip the village with the optimum during a flood, especially when residents are frequently exposed to high-risk situations. Moreover, when help was provided by the government, inadequate measures were made such as ground water excavation. This method only worsened land subsidence of Kamal Muara, making it more vulnerable. Hence, this shows the government’s lack of engagement in acknowledging the conditions of the village.
- Andreas, H. Insight look the subsidence impact to infrastructures in Jakarta and Semarang area; Key for adaptation and mitigation, https://www.matec-conferences.org/articles/matecconf/pdf/2018/06/matecconf_sibe2018_08001.pdf
- Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. & Andreas, Heri & Gumilar, Irwan & GAMAL, Mohammad. Land Subsidence and Urban Development in Jakarta (Indonesia). 2009