Kampong and Governmental Measure for Relocation
In order to gain access to marginal spaces for modernized development, the Jakarta government started to accuse kampong residents for illegally occupying the land and housings (Cuadra, Sears and Gieble, 2015). Kampong residents were simply evicted from their housings or relocated by the government. According to Cuadra, the Jakarta government even demolished some kampong area after flood with the excuse of repair and forced the resident to leave their neighborhood.
Although the government tried to compensate kampong residents for their relocation, it is apparent that the governmental action was not considerate of the actual situation of the residents. While clearing the kampongs, the government offered the residents with public neighborhood projects with low rent price. The government also provided subsidy for the citizens to purchase low-cost housings, but the subsidy was far from enough for the low-income residents; eventually the subsidized low-cost housings were more purchased by middle-class people instead of the original target (Silver, 2007).
Furthermore, the residents were also forced to resign from their original work due to relocation to a further district (Cuadra, Sears and Gieble, 2015). As a result, the government might have obtained more space for modernized development, but only forced the kampong residents to live in a worse condition of life. While the residents were formerly able to sufficiently support their housings and life by themselves, the relocation forced them to pay rents and management fees for the new housings with unemployment. Furthermore, some effort to demolish kampong ended up with failure. In some cases, the residents eventually went back to their original kampong to rebuild their houses since their prior neighborhood were later left unbuilt due to lack of funding (Cuadra, Sears and Gieble, 2015).
- Cuadra, Linda, Sears, Laurie J., and Giebel, Christoph. This Grievable Life: Precarity, Land Tenancy, and Flooding in the Kampung of Jakarta, 2015, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
- Silver, Christopher. Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2007.