The spatial plans & the kampung 2: Will Kamal Muara be allowed to stay green?

The 1992 spatial plan stipulated 26,1% of the city of Jakarta to be green areas, and 30% of the land area along the river to be forests (Rukmana, 2015). This is very important for kampung, firstly in terms of economy. Many kampung residents, especially those living in kampung along the coastline like Kamal Muara, were engaged in primary industries like fishing and subsistence farming which require natural resources (Van Voorst, 2016). Secondly in terms of of flooding –  green areas reduce rain water runoff from upstream areas of Jakarta to the central and waterfront districts, as natural flood water catchment areas (Van Voorst, 2016; Sagala, Lassa, Yasaditama & Hudalah, 2013). In light of flooding concerns, the ministry of Environment in the 90s strongly opposed developing the coastline of Jakarta (Rukmana, 2015).

The recognized importance of green areas is reflected in the city map of 1995-2008, where much of Jakarta, including Kamal Muara (yellow star, added by author) is stipulated as “River Greenbelt” or “Protected forests and tourist forests”:


1985-2005 Jakarta City Master Plan as represented in Ning, 1994

1985-2005 Jakarta City Master Plan as represented in Rukmana, 2015

However, the City Plan could easily be adjusted to fit the needs of private developers (Rukmana, 2015; Cowherd, 2002; Server, 1996), and was not always adhered to (see Spatial plans & kampung 3 and newer posts). This may have contributed to the fact that green areas in Jakarta decreased from 26.1% in 1985 to 13.9% in 2000 (Rukmana, 2015).



Purnomohadi, Ning. “Green Open Space to Improve Air Quality in Metropolitan Jakarta.” Ekistics 61 (1994): 47-58.

Rukmana, Deden (2015). The Change and Transformation of Indonesian Spatial Planning after Suharto’s New Order Regime: The Case of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. International Planning Studies, DOI: 10.1080/13563475.2015.1008723

Sagala, S., Lassa, J., Yasaditama, H., & Hudalah, D. (2013). The evolution of risk and vulnerability in Greater Jakarta: contesting government policy.  IRGSC Working Paper No. 2. Kupang, Indonesia: Institute for Resource Governance and Social Change.

Van Voorst, Roanne (2016). Natural Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability : Floods and Slum Life in Indonesia. Routledge Humanitarian Studies Series. 

Second year undergraduate student of Architecture at HKU, now writing about Kamal Muara, a fishing village / kampung in northern Jakarta, and its political circumstances in the 90s.

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