“The restructuring of Jakarta Metropolitan Area: A “global city” in Asia” / Tommy Firman
This article looks at the JMA – the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. The JMA is also known as Jabodetabek, an acronym for the cities Jakarta-Bogor-Depok-Tangerang-Bekasi. While not addressing flooding and kampung specifically, the book provides a detailed context of the general urban development of JMA. Jakarta witnessed unprecedented economic growth in the 90s, more than any other part of Indonesia. This was strongly linked to the government’s range of policy reforms aimed at increasing economic growth through finance, industry and infrastructure. In terms of the urban form, this has resulted in “rapid changes of land use in the core and conversion of agricultural land to urban land uses in the periphery”, and shopping malls and offices took over many kampung. While this information may seem too general to be immediately relevant to the Kamal Muara kampung, urban development further upstream in Jakarta actually had a strong direct influence on such waterfront areas, affecting water runoff and the severity of flooding. This is especially the case when the Spatial Planning Law is not adhered to, as will be elaborated on in other blog posts.
Firman, Tommy (1998). The restructuring of Jakarta Metropolitan Area: A “global city” in Asia. In Cities, 15(4), 229-243.