The spatial plans & the kampung 1: A potential hope for the kampung
Kampungs like Kamal Muara are particularly affected by spatial planning legislation, as the existence of green areas (forests, agricultural land etc.) for flood water catchment (Voorst, 2016), land rights (Cowherd, 2002) and evictions associated with commercial development (Sweeting, 2017) are all important factors that determine the daily life in the kampung. In absence of spatial plans, kampung residents are particularly vulnerable as they have relatively little political influence (Van Voorst; McCarthy, 2003).
However, first Spatial Planning Law under Suharto was only laid down in 1992; until then the urban planning had consisted of sporadic presidential decrees regulating only particular areas (Rukmana, 2015). The new Spatial Planning Law required province and district governments to create a long-term spatial plans (Rukmana, 2015), and aimed to protect vulnerable green areas and areas of particular “national value” (Rukmana, 2015). According to Cowherd (2002), it could potentially have a substantial positive impact on “water supply, flooding, transportation, and housing” (Cowherd, 2002, p37).
However, as one may guess from the earlier posts, the spatial plans often failed at protecting the kampung from the consequences of rapid urban development in the 1990s (Server, 1996; Rukmana, 2015; Cowherd, 2002). Upcoming posts will show Jakarta Bay, including parts of Kamal Muara, was redeveloped despite supposed protection by the Spatial Plan (2, 3, 4), which also works as a general example the development of Jakarta. A range of political circumstances can explain this outcome, which will be outlined in post 5.
Cowherd, Robert, (2002). Planning or cultural construction. In Peter J.M. Nas (Ed), The Indonesian town revisited, pp 17-38. Muenster & Singapore: Lit Verlag & Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
McCarthy, Paul, (2003). The Case of Jakarta, Indonesia. In UN-Habitat (Ed.), The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003 (pp.195-228). London: Earthscan. Retrieved 06.12.2018 from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/cities/jakarta.htm
Rukmana, Deden (2015). The Change and Transformation of Indonesian Spatial Planning after Suharto’s New Order Regime: The Case of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. International Planning Studies, DOI: 10.1080/13563475.2015.100872.
Sweeting, David (2017). The informal city and rights in South East Asian Cities: the cases of Kampung Improvement Programme and Baan Mankong, DPU working paper no. 192. London: The Bartlett Development Planning Unit. Retrieved 06.12.2018 from https://www.ucl.ac.uk/bartlett/development/sites/bartlett/files/wp192_david_sweeting.pdf
Server, O.B. (1996). Corruption: A Major Problem for Urban Management. In Habitat International, 20(1), pp23-41
Voorst, Roanne Van (2016). Natural Hazards, Risk and Vulnerability : Floods and Slum Life in Indonesia. New York: Routledge Humanitarian Studies Series.