The spatial plans & the kampung 4: North Jakarta land reclamation in plan
This map shows the area where land reclamation would be permitted in Northern Jakarta, according to the presidential decree no.52 in 1995:
From Sidarta, 1996. Legends translated from Indonesian by Cheryl Gracia Trisnadi, BA ArchStud Y2 at HKU
“Pantura” was the name given to the reclaimed land area of Jakarta Bay (Decree no.52, 1995). At the leftmost edge of the map is the border to Tangerang. Kamal Muara is indicated in yellow (emphasis added by author). As mentioned in earlier posts, reclamation of Jakarta Bay was expected to exacerbate flooding and lead to the destruction of mangroves and other green areas (Cowherd, 2002), and several laws and official recommendations (Rukmana, 2015.
These maps were published in the Journal of Regional and City Planning, sponsored by the Indonesian Association of Planners and Bandung Institute, and authored by Moch Sidarta. Sidarta was the executive chairman of the BP Pantura development commision, and the document compromising the maps (Sidarta, 1996) describes the Pantura in a very positive, assertive way. However, UN-Habitat (2005) revealed how Sidarta at one point did not act according to his statements. Accordingly, he allowed brutal forced evictions of fishing villages, despite earlier having claimed that none would be evicted (UN-Habitat, 2005). Thus, one may question to some extent the credibility of the maps. As spatial plans tended to be adjusted to fit the developers’ agenda (Rukmana, 2015; Cowherd, 2002), it is likely that these maps were also subject to rather loose interpretations.
However, while the spatial plans often lacked usage zoning (Cowherd, 2002), Sidarta included a second map which shows the intended land use:
From Sidarta, 1996.
The existing mangrove is indicated in the leftmost part of the map in black, marked as “garden/park”. The Kamal Muara kampung was mainly concentrated on the western side of the mangrove. The plan shows how the mangrove, as well as the kampung, would be cut off from the open sea by a residential area – it is easy to imagine the implications this would have for the traditional fishing economy of the village.
Cowherd, Robert, (2002). Planning or cultural construction. In Peter J.M. Nas (Ed), The Indonesian town revisited, pp 17-38. Muenster & Singapore: Lit Verlag & Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Keputusan Presiden (Presidential Decree) No. 52, “Tentang Reklamasi Pantai Utara Jakarta” (1995). Retrieved 20.12.2018 from Bappenas Library online
Rukmana, Deden (2015). The Change and Transformation of Indonesian Spatial Planning after Suharto’s New Order Regime: The Case of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area. International Planning Studies, DOI: 10.1080/13563475.2015.100872.
Sidarta, Moch (1996). Jakarta Waterfront City Development. In Journal of Regional and City Planning, 7(21), pp38-45. Retrieved from http://journals.itb.ac.id/index.php/jpwk/issue/view/419