Implementation of Kampung Improvement Program (KIP)
During the 1990s, it is rare to find real cases where measures were taken to improve kampungs. Instead there were several instances where these villages were wiped out to build a “proper” neighbourhood. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that the government has attempted to consider these rural neighbourhoods by categorising them in a separate programme to urban development which is known as the KIP. This programme was intended to improve the living and housing conditions of kampungs. It was initiated due to the urban slum problems that arose because of urban development projects. Therefore, making the government responsible to a certain extent for the deterioration of kampungs.
There have been 3 phases of KIP where the first was commenced in 1969 and the final in 1984  as it was disrupted by the Asian financial crisis. It focused on providing inexpensive and simple upgrades to the kampungs that were expected to have a useful life of around 15 years. This meant that since its first commencement, there is high chance that these upgrades have depreciated by now, making these kampungs vulnerable yet again. Therefore, this raises questions regarding the efficiency of KIP. This hints on the lack of proper examination of the conditions and the government is incapable of supporting high costs required to provide better solutions. Hence, this could be the reason for the discontinuation of the programme after the economic crisis.
1. Harari, M. & Wong, M. Slum Upgrading and Long-run Urban Development Evidence from Indonesia. 2018. https://economicdynamics.org/meetpapers/2018/paper_367.pdf
2. World Bank. Indonesia – Enhancing the quality of life in urban Indonesia: the legacy of Kampung Improvement Program (English). Washington, DC: World Bank. 1995.