1. Singh, R.B. “Jabodetabek Megacity: From City Development Toward Urban Complex Management System.” Chap. 22. In Urban Development Challenges, Risks and Resilience in Asian Mega Cities, 2015. 421-445.

In this book, the author discusses the rapid urban development and population growth in Indonesia, particularly having a focus on Jabodetabek which consists of Jakarta, West Java and Banten provinces during the 1990s. The book touches on the early city development to the future prospects of the city in terms of the infrastructural (physical outlook of the city) and the socio-economic developments. As well as the rapid changes faced by the city, the author is also able to inform us about the great challenges resulting from the changes.

2. Firman, T. “The restructuring of Jakarta Metropolitan Area: A “global city” in Asia.” In Cities The International Journal of Urban Policy and Planning, 1998. 229-243.

This book highlights the urban development of Jakarta, especially concentrating on the impact of infrastructure projects on the metropolitan area of Jakarta. For instance, the affected areas around Jakarta where land will be used for new town development projects and how those lands targeted could potentially be areas that are occupied by the kampungs.

3. Silver, Christopher. Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century. Planning, History, and the Environment Series. London; New York: Routledge, 2008.

This book explains the transformation of Jakarta from a colonial capital to a megacity with an exponential increase in population. The author informs the readers about the process of this transformation and how the planning of the city was influenced by political, cultural, social and economic factors.

4. Hellman, Thynell, Voorst, Hellman, Jörgen, Thynell, Marie, and Voorst, Roanne Van. Jakarta : Claiming Spaces and Rights in the City. Routledge Research on Urban Asia. 2018.

This book is an overview of the premise of unequal development in Jakarta, in terms of how there is unfairness between urban development where majority of the projects are in favour of those in the upper class as they will benefit from facilities such as shopping malls, high-rise residentials and golf courses. The author also discusses about the vulnerability of the lower class regarding legal rights to their property and the risk of being unable to claim their space.

5. Andreas, H. Insight look the subsidence impact to infrastructures in Jakarta and Semarang area; Key for adaptation and mitigation,

This paper reviews the issue of land subsidence in Jakarta using data collected using different methods, hence a collection of statistical data to show the land conditions of the city. The author highlights key figures on land subsidence and gives comparisons between different parts of Jakarta to emphasise on the seriousness of the issue.

6. Abidin, Hasanuddin Z. & Andreas, Heri & Gumilar, Irwan & GAMAL, Mohammad. Land Subsidence and Urban Development in Jakarta (Indonesia). 2009.

This paper unveils the different factors involved in causing land subsidence in Jakarta. The writers relate this problem of land subsidence together with the rapid urban development of the city such as population growth and increase of “built up areas” for infrastructural projects. Also, the relationship with groundwater excavation as a result of urban development and its impact on the land.

7. Harari, M. & Wong, M. Slum Upgrading and Long-run Urban Development Evidence from Indonesia. 2018.

This paper is essentially about the relationship between Kampung Improvement Program and urban development in relation to how by investing in such a program, this could potentially affect the extent of urban development. Therefore, the writers analyse whether these long term costs will eventually benefit the government and the city or instead affect the future development plans.

8. World Bank. Indonesia – Enhancing the quality of life in urban Indonesia: the legacy of Kampung Improvement Program (English). Washington, DC: World Bank. 1995.

This book gives an in depth look into what the premise and purpose of Kampung Improvement Program is. For instance, how this program was initiated and their methods of dealing with improvement measures. It deals with how the KIP was implemented and in what form such as how the kampungs benefit from the treatment provided by the program.

9. World Bank. Jakarta – Urban challenges in a changing climate (English). Washington, DC: World Bank. 2011.

This publication is an overview of how the different communities of Jakarta are all affected by climate change to this date by having a collection of statistical data and maps. Hence, it discusses some of the major issues faced by Jakarta such as rise in sea levels, heavy rainfall and the frequency of severe flood incidents.

10. P Tambunan. The pattern of spatial flood disaster region in DKI Jakarta. 2017.

This paper analyses Jakarta in 3 time periods: 1996, 2002 and 2007 when the city was hit by a major flood by examining issues of landform and the characteristics of the flood. The writers describes this research by using data and maps to highlight a trend that occurs from 1996 to 2007 and trying to categorise areas that are prone to flooding.

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