Indonesian City Structure and Kampongs



In Jakarta,kampongsin different area have diverse features. There are four types of kampongswhich are inner-city kampongs, mid-city kampongs, rural kampongs and the temporary squatter kampongsaccording to Ford (1993). Inner city kampongs are under inferior condition due to overcrowded population and environmental issues; mid-city kampongsare the major target for the developers due to their close location to employment centers; rural kampongsare traditional agricultural villages; squatter kampongsare under worst conditions since they are considered temporary and are not included in Kampong Improvement Program (Ford, 1993).

According to the comparison of the two model from Tunas and Peresthu (2010), it is perceivable that there are diverse conditions in Jakarta’s living neighborhood, while other south-east Asian cities are divided with clear definition amongst different zones. As Ford mentioned (1993), there are two-third of the citizens living in kampongsin the city, his model also shows that kampongcovers most part of the city and is blended in different neighborhood.



  1. Ford, Larry R. “A Model of Indonesian City Structure.” Geographical Review 83, no. 4 (1993): 374-96.
  2. Tunas, and Peresthu. “The Self-help Housing in Indonesia: The Only Option for the Poor?” Habitat International 34, no. 3 (2010): 315-22.

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