1. Cuadra, Linda, Sears, Laurie J., and Giebel, Christoph. This Grievable Life: Precarity, Land Tenancy, and Flooding in the Kampung of Jakarta, 2015, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.

This paper covers the land rights and tenancy in Jakarta, and the climate with flooding issues in the city. It mainly considers diverse types of elements that lead to current situation of kampongs with poverty.Historical development of Jakarta, the governmental forces and the complicated land right regulations that led to current situation of kampongs have been explored in the paper.


  1. Evawani Ellisa. “COPING WITH CROWDING IN HIGH-DENSITY KAMPUNG HOUSING OF JAKARTA.” Archnet-IJAR10, no. 1 (2016): 195-212.

The paper illustrates the living environment and the architecture of kampong. The research is made thorough questionnaire surveys, interviews, observations of life cycles, housing construction elements, documentation of space arrangements, and the study reveals people’s lives in compact kampong neighbourhood.


  1. Kusno, Abidin. “HOUSING THE MARGIN: PERUMAHAN RAKYAT AND THE FUTURE URBAN FORM OF JAKARTA.”Indonesia, no. 94 (2012): 23-56,149.

The government in Jakarta always try to improve the condition of the city by clearing the kampongs. The journal talks about governmental measures to relocate kampong residents and efforts to create a “slum” free city, and how do these measures influence the kampong residents. The author clearly analyses on the effects of governmental measures on the low-income residents and shows thesuitability of the governmental forces.


  1. McCarthy, P. (Ed.) (2003). Urban Slums Report: The Case of Jakarta, Indonesia, World-Bank.
Miller, D. (1987). Material Culture and Mass Consumption, Oxford: Blackwell.

Two third of Indonesian residents are living in Kampongs. The article gives clear introduction to the conditions of kampongs in Jakarta and shows diverse governmental, social and economic issues that the kampong residents are facing. Through the article, the author gives better understanding to the readers about the living conditions of kampongs in Jakarta.


  1. Silver, Christopher.Planning the Megacity: Jakarta in the Twentieth Century. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2007.

This book shows the transformation of Jakarta from the colonial time to a current mega city and deeply talks about the historical development that Jakarta has been through over decades. The author explains the influence of city planning on diverse aspects such as economy, politics and culture of the city in local, international contexts.


  1. Supriatna, Andri.Analysing Land Tenure Security of Urban Kampung in Jakarta, 2018.

Residents of kampongs in Jakarta live in unstable condition since they are unsure when they might have to leave their neighbourhood due to dualism of land legal regulation system in Jakarta. The thesis focuses on two kampong area in Jakarta and examines the relationship between causes and effects of tenure security in urban kampongs.


  1. Zhu, and Simarmata. “Formal Land Rights versus Informal Land Rights: Governance for Sustainable Urbanization in the Jakarta Metropolitan Region, Indonesia.”Land Use Policy 43, no. C (2015): 63-73.

Most of the land in Jakarta is constructed under informal land right and there are a lot of arguments going on between residents and the government on the land regulation issues due to the dualism of the system. The article specifically talks about the dualism of land right regulation in Jakarta and the historical and political background that the city is facing such issue.


  1. Devas, Nick. “Indonesia’s Kampung Improvement Program: An Evaluative Case Study.”Ekistics 48, no. 286 (1981): 19-36.

The study evaluates Kampong Improvement Program by specifying diverse aspects of improvement that KIP has done to different communities in Indonesia. By comparing the previous conditions before KIP and the latter improvements of the program, the study gives better understanding of the Kampong Improvement Program.


  1. Ford, Larry R. “A Model of Indonesian City Structure.”Geographical Review 83, no. 4 (1993): 374-96.

This paper covers the historical, sociological and political background for the structure of Indonesian Cities toexplain about the peculiar city structureof Indonesia. It not only covers the traditional city structure of Jakarta, but also talks deeply about diverse ethnic groups. Morespecifically, the author also illustrates about the diverse structure of kampongs in the city.


  1. Haiti Earthquake On World Map. Accessed December 27, 2018.


  1. Immelman, Michael, and Josh Haner. “Jakarta Is Sinking So Fast, It Could End Up Underwater.” The New York Times. December 21, 2017. Accessed December 19, 2018. -climate.html.

This news post talks about the situation of land subsidence of Jakarta and how much the city is vulnerable to climate changes. The news also covers the governmental measure and possible future plans to solve the current situations.


  1. Tunas, and Peresthu. “The Self-help Housing in Indonesia: The Only Option for the Poor?”Habitat International 34, no. 3 (2010): 315-22.

The article mainly focuses on the kampong housings in Jakarta. It talks about the historical development and the tenure problems of kampongs and deeply illustrates the relationship between kampong and the government. The paper ends with suggestions for further solutions and measure for issues that both the government and the kampong residents are facing.


  1. World Bank. 2011. Jakarta – Urban challenges in a changing climate (English). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Rapid urban development and growth of population has reminded people in Jakarta of infrastructure shortage of the city, and thus the residents are greatly influenced by environmental changes such as flooding. The case study covers the challenges that communities of Jakarta is facing due to climatic changes and provide diverse strategy to overcome current situation.

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