Regulating design in Singapore: a survey of the Government Land Sales (GLS) programme

Lee, Kah-Wee. “Regulating Design in Singapore: A Survey of the Government Land Sales (GLS) Programme.” Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy 28, no. 1 (2010): 145-64.

This article analyzed the mechanism of the Government Land Sales Programme in great depth. It studied specifications in tender documents and compared it with the actual building design, tracing the evolution of the programme  “moving from an experimental phase in the 1960s when controls were sparse and discretionary, to being institutionalised by the 1980s, when controls became comprehensive, precise, and technical”. (Lee, 2010)

Through its examination of the government’s vision and counterproposals from private sectors, the interplay between state power and private sector in the GLS process is revealed, demonstrating how different force cooperated and contributed in the Golden Shoe Redevelopment project.

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