Jakarta’s urban and rural growth, alongside with Rural Settlements throughout Jakarta

Accessibility was also an issue to be talked about during Jakarta’s development into the economic and political center, which has been acting as the spinal cord to sustain Indonesia as a whole as a business and administrative district.

The accessibility includes the construction of Highways and toll roads for a better migration and efficiency issue in Jakarta; Key major roads also built along the ceiling river. The Urban transformation in Jakarta has been strongly related to policy changes; some examples are due to the urban health crisis in the 1790s, which leads to a morphological change in the urban pattern. Through spatial and policy changes, Jakarta’s urban transformations have focused on vehicle-oriented street network development, which ended up with the private vehicles shroomed. This occasion caused a lack and no continuous pedestrian street network, which leads to street level walking inconveniences due to lower safety risks and disadvantages of marginalized pedestrians group compared to groups with access to top private vehicles.

Informal settlements also emerged due to rapid population growth and urbanization in Jakarta. Land supply shortage and high land values were affected by massive urbanization; as a result, 25% of agricultural uses have undergone programs shifted into industrial, residential, and commercial uses to meet the growing land demand. However, urban slums and infrastructure problems were still evident throughout the informal settlements.

Primary agricultural land conversion and green open space have been caused by the suburbanization, which created environmental problems due to land conversion without undergone the land suitability, function, and capacity consideration. The impact of the overshot carrying capacity is increased in anthropogenic disasters, which include landslides and floods in the Jabodetabek region in terms of quantity, intensity, and distribution. The spatial planning inconsistency causes the frequency of anthropogenic disasters incidences due to some factors, including non-complying existing land use with the current spatial planning. Also, spatial planning itself is not in line with the principles/regulations.




  1. Alzamil. (2017). The Urban Features of Informal Settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia: Elsevier.
  2. Hidayati, Yamu, Tan. (2019). The Emergence of Mobility Inequality in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia: A Socio-Spatial Analysis of Path Dependencies in Transport-Land Use Policies. Sustainability. MPDI.
  3. Rustiadi, Pribadi, Pravitasari, Indraprahasta, Iman. (2015). Jabodetabek Megacity: From City Development Toward Urban Complex Management System. Urban Development Challenges, Risks, and Resilience. Jakarta: Springer Japan.


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