Chaotic Developments in Chongqing before the “Draft”
The “Draft on Ten-Year Planning on the Construction of the Second Capital” (陪都十年建設計劃) is the first comprehensive plan for future urban construction in Chongqing history. Prior to this, Chongqing’s development was chaotic, and the “Draft” was a milestone in Chongqing’s comprehensive planning, occupying an important position in the history of Chongqing’s urban development and leaving a profound impact.
During Pan Wenhua’s administration in Chongqing, although various constructions were carried out, such as the construction of new urban areas, new highways, new docks, parks, and the renovation of the old streets, etc. However due to the lack of overall planning, this series of constructions didn’t achieve satisfactory results.
The capital of the National Government moved to Chongqing, and various institutions, schools, and enterprises also moved in. The rapid expansion of the population and limited social resources made the phenomenon of disorderly construction in the urban area of Chongqing particularly serious.
The Japanese army bombed Chongqing for nearly six years. Especially from 1939 to 1941, continuous and indiscriminate bombardment continued to cause serious damage to dense blocks constructed by flammable materials such as bamboo and wood in Chongqing. People were constructing new relocation areas, residential areas, college areas, and industrial areas. However, due to the rush of time, many temporarily constructed buildings have no formal planning and design, which has added to the fragmentation of Chongqing.
The capital of the Nationalist Government moved back to Nanjing. Chongqing’s status as the “Chinese capital” during the war began to shift to the “Great Southwest Economic Construction Hub.” In December 1945, on the eve of his return to Nanjing, as the chairman of the National Government, Chiang Kai-shek ordered the Chongqing Municipal Government to start a ten-year construction plan and stated that “the goal is to provide better transportation and civilian welfare.” Since then, the first scientific and reasonable planning in Chongqing City was started.
Li Cai, A Historical Study of Chongqing’s Modern Urban Planning and Construction (1876-1949) 重庆近代城市规划与建设的历 史研究（1876-1949）(A Dissertation Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Wuhan University Of Technology, 2012)
Ren Jing, What Kind of City Did Chongqing Plan to Be Sixty-seven Years ago: An Interpretation of the Draft Construction Plan for the Ten Years of the Alternate Capital 六十七年前想建怎样的重庆城——解读《陪都十年建设计划草案》(Journal of Hongyanchunqiu, 2013)
Xie Xuan, Chongqing Urban Construction and Planning Research, 1937-1949 1937-1949年重庆城市建设与规划研究(A Dissertation Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, South China University of Technology, 2011)