General Plan of Tashkent in 1966 and Map of Tashkent in 1976
1966 Earthquake in Tashkent, measured 5.1 on the Richter scale with an epicentre located in the city centre, as shown in figure 1. This disaster destroyed over 35,000 traditional vernacular housings education institutes and housings were shattered, that the Soviet architects and planners could transform and model a new Soviet city in Asia.
Soviets took this advantage to introduce soviet nationalism to Tashkent people. With regard of city centre being the most seismic danger area, Tashkent proposed to move residential area to the suburbs, or outer ring of the city, as shown on figure 4. This is somewhat responding to the Garden City that Ebenezer Howard proposed, centre with parks surrounded with public buildings, outer ring with residential housings, and boulevards for high-speed transportations dividing up the rings for mobility of citizens. Where Soviet could implant administrative facilities, or socialism ideas, without taking any consideration of local Uzbek culture, as shown on figure 2 and 5.
The newly redeveloped Tashkent has taken away Uzbek cultural uniqueness in the city, with western touches on architectural styles and planning of areas. Planning of the city has unignorable link with its national identity, and it changed throughout time in Tashkent.
It has different views and values on how this city has changed as a Central Asian socialist space, with deep Soviet nationalism. Double sided perspectives on this change will be further addressed in other entries: The Tashkent Earthquake of 1966: The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Natural Tragedy. And after its independence from the Soviet, Tashkent redesign on public landscapes was another narrative of its nationhood, as will be further discussed on other entries: Public Landscape of Tashkent and reconstitution of contemporary Uzbek national identity.
А.И. Банке, Ю.П. Пурецкий, А.В. Стазаева, А.В. Якушев. “Генеральный план развития Ташкента” [General Development Plan of Tashkent]. Издательство ЦК КП Узбекистана [Publishing House of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan]. Tashkent. 1967.
Stronski, Paul. “Tashkent: forging a Soviet City”, 1930-1966. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2010.