III. Road System of Central Area of Alternate City 陪都市中地區幹線系統圖

As mentioned in the second section, the population in the city center increased dramatically from 1936 to 1946. People living in the coastal area of China moved to Chongqing, seeking shelter from Japanese attacks. Because most of them stayed in the same place, like the city center, there is always a huge loss when the Japanese troops bombed downtown. In order to reduce the loss, the government instructed citizens to live in scattered locations, far away from the center. However, the road system was not capable of such a migration. Thus before the publishment of the Tne-Year plan, there was already a wide range of road construction. The government started to construct the three super boulevards and other critical roads based on the military requirements as well as the purpose of quick population transfer. However, the construction was always interrupted by the bombs and there are no systematic guidelines. It was the Ten-Tear Plan that made specific standards and systemized the road network in Chongqing.

In the Ten-Years Plan, the government outlined the four main parts: Road System in the downtown, Plaza at the crossroads; Boulevards in the suburban area and Street networks in the satellite cities. This session will mainly discuss the first part. The main four principles of this part are:

  1. Establish Boulevards around the city 建立環城幹道

  2. Establish the Intersected Super Boulevards 建立市中心區交叉超級幹道

  3. Follow the Road Standards made by Works Bureau in 1941 沿用民國三十年市公務局所訂道路標準

  4. Connect to the original system established by the Works Bureau 力求與工務局原有系統相銜接,以免改線之煩

 

重慶市工務局.重慶市城新兩區道路系統圖及道路網長度表.重慶市檔案館藏,Quoted in 趙耀. “《陪都十年建設計畫草案》之研究.” 2014.

Below is the primary map describing the situation. The Northern Boulevard mentioned in the New Chongqing is denoted by a solid black line.

Legends:

Red Lines: Super Boulevard超級幹道33m

Solid Black Lines: Boulevard幹道22m

Orange Lines: Secondary Boulevard 次要幹道18m

Dotted Black Lines: Normal Highway輔助道 15m

“陪都市中心區乾路系統圖.” In 陪都十年建設計劃草案, edited by 陪都建設計劃委員會. 重慶: 1947.

From the map, we can easily find out that the boulevards were designed along the Jialing River and the Yangtze River, surrounding the newly expanded city center. The super boulevards pass through the old downtown and intersect perpendicularly. The road network of the old downtown was rationalized to a large extent. Boulevards are ranked and designed with different widths according to the road standard.

“道路標準.” In 陪都十年建設計劃草案, edited by 陪都建設計劃委員會. 重慶: 1947.

 

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