Jakarta Bay Reclamation Policy IV.I [2015 Jakarta Bay Spatial Planning Draft]: Reclamation for Economic and Urban Development
Following the 2014 Provincial Government Regulation, Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok) administration proceeded to plan the reclamation project by drafting Provincial Government Regulation on Jakarta Bay Spatial Planning in 2015. The document essentially laid out the necessary regulations to advance the Jakarta Bay Reclamation Project including, but not limited to:
- details on spatial planning and land use zoning of Jakarta Bay, along with major schedules,
- role of the business partners (developers), specifying their rights and obligations towards the project.
The overall description of the spatial zoning of Jakarta Bay Reclamation could be seen in Article 14.
Section V, Article 14 on Development Instruction of North Coast per Strategic Sub-area
*translations for this article would not be word per word, only the essence for ease of understanding.
(1) North Coast Strategic Area is divided into 3 sub-areas, namely:
- West Sub-area: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H Island
- Central Sub-area: I, J, K, L, and M Island
- East Sub-area: N, O, P, Q
(2) West Sub-area would mainly be developed for horizontal and vertical housing with support by the development of offices, trades, and services, and a limited amount of tourism.
(3) Central Sub-area would mainly be developed for offices, trade, and services, MICE, and tourism in high-intensity with support by horizontal and vertical housing.
(4) East Sub-area would mainly be developed for seaport, utility, industry, warehouse, with support by vertical housing and offices, trades, and services.
(5) All reclaimed islands within West Sub-area and East Sub-area need to provide public beach areas with minimum length 10% of the overall coastline length.
(6) A Island and B Island would be developed in accordance with Tangerang Regency reclamation regulation.
(7) C Island, D Island, and E Island would be developed in tandem with the protected area and mangrove forest of the old coast, not causing coastal abrasion, not disturbing the estuary, sea traffic and shipping lane, and the public fishery business.
(8) Vertical canal between G and H Island, as well as between L and M Island would be utilized as underwater refined fuel oil pipeline and underwater gas pipeline. Activities that are not directly related is not allowed.
(9) K Island would be specially developed as a recreational/tourist park as an expansion of Taman Impian Jaya Ancol.
(10) N Island, O Island, P Island, Q Island, and a part of M Island would be specially developed by the Central and Provincial Government as an integrated port area to support the role of the capital city. Depiction of their detailed spatial structure and zoning would be addressed in other regulations.
One of the original aims of Jakarta Bay Reclamation was to propel the urban and economic growth of Jakarta. Being categorized as a “Strategic Area,” Jakarta Bay hold a certain potential even within the national level. Within this regulation, there is an emphasis on the symbolic feature of the reclaimed islands, capitalizing their development opportunity as an iconic area to bring forth values of collective diversity as seen in the following:
Section V, Article 16 on Reclaimed Island Characteristic Feature
(1) Each reclaimed island is obligated to develop a characteristic feature through the development of at least 1 (one) certain type of urban activities on a large scale and dominant enough in tourism, culture, education, health, sports, and/or business and commerce, with the intention to propel unique characteristic diversity across islands so that as a collective would materialize as an interesting and special reclamation area.
Section XII, Part III on Business Cooperation, Article 116.
(5) To support the implementation of an effective reclamation and permit mechanism, an obligation imposition system that is balanced with the benefits obtained by the development partner is developed.
(6) The obligation imposition system consisted of:
- Additional contribution
(7) Obligation consisted of:
- providing infrastructure, facilities, and basic utilities needed for each island,
- providing link infrastructure connecting across islands,
- contributing in the form of dredging river sedimentation around the reclamation island.
(9) Contribution consisted of:
- Giving land contribution with an area of 5% of the total land area of HPL (Right to Manage).
- Contributing in the form of dredging river sedimentation on land.
(10) Additional contributions is given in order to:
- revitalize North Jakarta area,
- revitalize the land in Jakarta as a whole.
(11) Additional contribution is calculated at 15% of the total SVTO value of sellable land in the year the additional contribution is imposed.
According to Ahok, the obligation imposition system would generate revenue for the provincial government to fund development projects. Achieving the balance between public and private interests, while benefiting all stakeholders as a whole would be ideal for any urban development projects. The details of the cooperation between the government and the business partners are integral to the project, as much as the detailed spatial plans, pushing forward the agenda of reclamation as a catalyst for urban and economic development. Yet, the huge economical potential could also open leeway for individual economical interests. Article 116, in particular verse (11), would later be contested in the Jakarta Bay Reclamation corruption case – one of the factors halting the Jakarta Bay Reclamation process.
All translation is provided by the author.
Rancangan Peraturan Daerah Provinsi DKI Jakarta (RAPERDA) [Special Capital Region of Jakarta Provincial Government Regulation Draft] “Tentang Rencana Tata Ruang Kawasan Strategis Pantai Utara Jakarta” [“About Spatial Planning of North Coast of Jakarta Strategic Area”] (2015). Jakarta, Indonesia. Retrieved November 15, 2020 from https://dprd-dkijakartaprov.go.id/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Raperda-tentang-Tata-Ruang-Kawasan-Strategis-Pantai-Utara-Jakarta.pdf
 Ahok took office in October 16, 2014, after Jokowi got elected as President of Indonesia.
 Metrotvnews, “Ahok vs Anies Debat Soal Reklamasi,” [“Ahok vs Anies Debate Regarding Reclamation Policy,”] Youtube Video, 6:02, April 12, 2017, retrieved November 15, 2020 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOtUIoV-FDU