The Battle of Sovereignty in early 1800s: Bibliography I – Macau the Cultural Janus

The author challenges the easy assumptions of the causal sequence: colonialism/postcolonialism, and opens up an interdisciplinary purview of a local instance in cross-cultural studies including politics, literature and architecture. With a judicious use of English, Chinese, and Portuguese sources. By concentrating on the ambivalent history of Macau, the author reveals the historical reality of cultural vacillation between two political entities and the emergence of a creole minority – the Macanese.

Macau, on the threshold of the twentieth-first century, is perhaps a harbinger of a new urban culture. Having been nurtured by the sharply constrasting legacies of China and Portugal, this unique city manages to meld cultural differences and avoid the destructiveness of ethnic clashes. It is thus likened here to the Roman deity Janus, who is usually depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions.


Cheng, Christina Miu Bing. Macau: a cultural Janus. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1999.


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