3.5 Ethnic Diversity and Horwitz Plan Developmental Foundations

Horwitz’s masterplan corresponding to the changing conditions of the growing Tel Aviv in the 1950s sparked both positive and negative consequences. With original intentionality to distinguish and demolish the classist segregation occurring between north and south of the city, the new masterplan with its configurations of establishing new modules of transport routes, hubs, monitoring of slum conditions as well as immigrational routes; ethnic diversity is enhanced as a result of his plans. The concentration of new ethnic diversity increased the labour force to which immensely welcomed new residents to the metropolis, transforming those in need of new opportunities to additions of the labour force.

Figure: Table Showing Ethnic Diversity in Israel Cities

Referring to the increased percentages of non native population, the diversity of individuals allows for a larger range of skills and abilities to be applied to the workforce, blooming development to different facets of urban growth. However, the concept of even and balanced cash flow revenue distributed within the city has not been alleviated yet perplexing a whole new issue. The existing north south segregation transformed into an east west segregation as displayed by old maps and Horwitz’s new plan. Continuing the racial oppression towards non Jewish populations, as clearly displayed through the development of the Central Bus Station. Thus, exponentially creating a government leniency towards racial discrimination without ideologies to create a balanced society that creates balanced cash flow distribution within the city itself. Non Jewish settlements locate themselves at low income districts, under protected by law enforcement and slums that have not been fully been transformed to metropolitan residencies due to their financial inability. The intentionality behind Horwitz’s plan ultimately is not met with the opposition by government and private developers to cease benefits of self profit and Jewish prioritization. Hence, development in the future decades tackle these issues with a more equipped and established city.

Figure: Demonstration of Ayalon Cross Town Expressway and Detailing of Interlocking Infrastructure Design

Before Horwitz’s plan, the city’s navigation had aligned itself with small roads with little to no interchanging moments as a system itself. Horwitz’s contribution to the further developments were the consideration of infrastructural architecture, creating segways that act as sub-major roads that connect along the Ayalon Crosstown Expressway. Interlocking systems have been intact where transition from one orientation and directionality has now quadrupled with each intersection creating higher efficiency of navigation. His plan itself has enveloped a substantial contribution to the then used transportation system. Also with the consideration of immigrational routes, expressways have been created for transportation in and out of the city crossing tectonic boundaries but still well settled into the city itself. Lastly, the induction of diversion canals that connect along the existing roadways create full connectivity of the system in the city itself. Furthermore, creating an infrastructural expression that has been maintained and developed as a self sustaining expansion technique for transportation and connectivity purposes.


  • Fenster, T., & Yacobi, H. (2005). Whose City is it? On Urban Planning and Local Knowledge in Globalizing Tel Aviv-Jaffa. Planning Theory & Practice, 6(2), 191-211. doi:10.1080/14649350500137051
  • Kozlovsky, R., Brand, T., Giese, H., Torrent, H., López, H. M., Oyarzún, F. P., . . . Bortoluzzi, A. (2020, November 07). Fig. 3 Exits from Tel-Aviv schematic master plan (B.C.E.O.M., 1966)…. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Exits-from-Tel-Aviv-schematic-master-plan-BCEOM-1966-Interchange-diagram_fig3_334404405


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