Ankara

“There was always a reason why Atatürk was called the ‘Architect’ of Ankara: how he shifted the axis, replaced the monument, selected architects to design his residence and institution buildings, or imposed security and regulation measures, all had an inseparable relationship with the urban form and growth. It was hard to judge whether these alterations were right or wrong, however, it was equally remarkable for how the outcome showed a modernization and westernization in ‘Turkish style’ and their confusion in seeking their own identity and representation.”

– Hilary Yeung, “City as a Stage of Politics, 1929-35,” 2016

Narratives


Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Conclusion

Hilary Yeung

Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Conclusion

Ankara: Turkish Style of Modernization As a newly born Republican country trying to make her statement towards the world by its capital and architecture, Atatürk chose Ankara as a capital to demonstrate his vision to the entire Turkey, decisively chosen foreign architects and professionals for its de-orientalization, modernization, and Westernization. Hermann Jansen’s master plan in 1929 ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Garden City in Developing Countries – Aftermath of Bahçelievler and Ankara, 1935

Hilary Yeung

Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Garden City in Developing Countries – Aftermath of Bahçelievler and Ankara, 1935

The Bahçelievler Housing Cooperative project in the Western part of Ankara by Jansen (the master planner of Ankara, 1929) apart from being a great example showing the unsynchronized understanding on the appropriation of architecture representation in the translation process, its population growth and aftermath were also served as a depiction of the big picture. By ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Architecture translations and the Republicans ideal – Case study of the Bahçelievler (1935-36)

Hilary Yeung

Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Architecture translations and the Republicans ideal – Case study of the Bahçelievler (1935-36)

As mentioned in the previous blog posts, the republican elites agglomerated and built villas along the way to the Presidential Palace as means to accumulate political capitals. In the original master plan by Lörcher and later Jansen in 1929, they envisioned a garden city in Ankara, the street front with uniformed styles of housing and ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Public Space and Social Invasion of Atatürk in Ankara

Hilary Yeung

Ankara (1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: Public Space and Social Invasion of Atatürk in Ankara

Apart from undercutting the power and significance of the National Assembly by altering the master plan and ‘utilizing’ his Presidential Palace, Atatürk often extended his influence to the public to further amplify his authority. The deconstruction of the Triumphal Arch and replacement with the Victory Monument of Atatürk himself, and the militarization of the twin park, ...

Ankara(1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: The Political Context of Ankara in 1920s-30s

Hilary Yeung

Ankara(1929-35)/ City as a Stage of Politics: The Political Context of Ankara in 1920s-30s

In Jansen’s original master plan for Ankara, it was obviously literal and symbolic in the careful design of a symmetrical boulevard, locations of Government institutions and monuments. However, the consequences, to the physical form and language of Ankara, of series of changes in plans made by Atatürk, were highly underrated by the President himself. In ...

Ankara (1929-35)- Theoretical Influences & Planning Principles- Part 5: Comparison with Modernist Urban Planning

Kwok Chun Ho

In era of modernism, while a generation of architects and urban planner has initiated campaigns like garden city movement, city beautiful movement, Arts and Crafts movement, etc., reestablishing city with humanity and environments, another group has risen to embrace the power of industrialization. Organization & Transportation, Formation of Community, and Attitude toward the Historical Fibers. This ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ From Paper to Product: Issues in Implementation of Green Belts, Zoning and Streets

Johnny Tse

Hermann Jansen looked to Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City as the model to which he based Ankara’s Master Plan – with different sectors to which he attributed different functions, the whole of Ankara would not only retain its cultural center in the form of the old citadel, it would also develop a new city center for ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ From Paper to Product: The Rerouting of the North-South Axis

Johnny Tse

The north-south axis is always a main axis for a city, as it is often used as the centre of the city for planning and ideological purposes. One of the key takeaways from the fact that the north-south axis of Ankara was rerouted during the later developmental stages of the Master Plan show that strong ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ From Paper to Product: Testing Architectural Ideas on Foreign Soil

Johnny Tse

Since the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Turkish have gradually been searching for their own identity in the aspects of arts and architecture. With Seljuk and Ottoman architecture taking important precedent and influencing the early works in the period due to the historical impact in that geographical location, what occurred after ...

Ankara (1929-35)- Theoretical Influences & Planning Principles- Part 4: Hermann Jansen’s Design Principles & Implementation on Ankara’s Initial Master Planning (2)

Kwok Chun Ho

Continue with the previous discussion, this section will mainly focus on the Jansen’s Design Principles on Public Space Design, and Mechanism of individual Districts in Ankara initial planning Public Space Design/ Communal Life in the City • A healthy urban environment was secured through green areas, sports grounds, playgrounds for children, parks and recreational areas Given Jansen’s ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ From Paper to Product: Plans or Practicality?

Johnny Tse

Although Hermann Jansen’s master plan was developed and received in 1929, the political landscape of Turkey was gradually changing over the years. Towards the mid-1930s, the political inclination within the republican administration grew closer and closer towards the increasingly powerful authoritarian contingent, and thus the political views changed with it. Whereas Hermann Jansen’s plans stressed ...

Ankara (1929-35)/ From Paper to Product: Scrapping of the Triumphal Arch and Replacement with the Victory Monument

Johnny Tse

Hermann Jansen had originally proposed the construction of a Triumphal Arch in his Master Plan. With the changes in governmental political values, this plan was eventually scrapped and replaced with the construction of a Victory Monument instead. Whereas the original Triumphal Arch was intended to suggest a equal part in honouring the old and new ...

Ankara (1929-35)- Theoretical Influences & Planning Principles- Part 3: Hermann Jansen’s Design Principles & Implementation on Ankara’s Initial Master Planning (1)

Kwok Chun Ho

It was reported that although Jansen’s master plan for Ankara was deeply influenced by the main principles in Lörcher Plan prepared for Ankara in 1924-1925 (Cengizkan, 2002), which emphasized on the establishment of zones and their organization, and formation of a neighborhood for workers, under the contestants by the local government of Ankara, (2002, 57, ...

Ankara (1929-35)- Theoretical Influences & Planning Principles- Part 2: Ebenezer Howard’s & Theodor Fritsch’s Garden City Proposals & their influence on initial Ankara’s Plan

Kwok Chun Ho

While taking the ‘Picturesque’ Streetscape and Public space design principle from Sitte, the initial urban planning of Ankara has learnt much from the Garden City moment, initiated by the two pioneers: Ebenezer Howard and Theodor Fritsch. In Howard’s Proposal from ‘Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform’ (1898) and ‘Garden Cities of Tomorrow’ (1902), a large ...

Ankara (1929-35)- Theoretical Influences & Planning Principles- Part 1: Camillo Sitte’s ‘Picturesque’ Urban Approach & its influence on initial Ankara’s Plan

Kwok Chun Ho

Raised during the time of Industrial Revolution, where European cities underwent different degrees of modernization, Camillo Sitte has taken influence from his travel in Countries, like Italy, France, Germany and Austria, and from which he has established his own theories on urban design. From ‘City Planning according to artistic Principles’ (1889), Camillo Sitte has raised ...

 

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