Although normatively questionable, ethnic cleansing may provide one explanation for the decline of interethnic violence. Some scholars believe that the best way to secure peace is to create a partition and physical separation between the ethnic groups. In April 2007, …

Reiligion Issue in Baghdad – Physical barrier between Sunni and Shia Read more »

After the U.S. invasion in 2003, the sectarian violence shattered the diversity neighborhoods of Baghdad into many pieces. It changed the envelope of the ethnic distribution of the city. By late 2007, the shifting population was concentrated and divided mainly …

Religion Issue in Baghdad – Population Shift: Ethnic cleansing by Shia dominant (2003 – 2007) Read more »

U.S. handed over Green Zone Authority to Iraq Image source: Khuzaie, Wathiq. US Hands over Green Zone to Iraqis. January 1, 2009. Baghdad. Accessed December 21, 2017. https://media.gettyimages.com/photos/iraqi-army-soldiers-stand-guard-at-the-green-zone-gate-on-january-1-picture-id84153550. Reclaiming the Green Zone – After 6 years under the U.S. military control, the …

BAGHDAD – THE CITY OF WALLS (2003-2013) / Green Zone returned to the Iraqi Read more »

Bibliography “At Midnight, U.S. Leaves Republican Palace, Green Zone to Iraqis.” The Washington Post. January 01, 2009. Accessed December 12, 2017. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/31/AR2008123103121.html. Thuffman. “Inside Baghdad’s ‘Green Zone’.” Al-Monitor. November 19, 2013. Accessed December 11, 2017. https://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2013/04/iraq-green-zone-baghdad.html. Langewiesche, William. “Welcome to …

BAGHDAD – THE CITY OF WALLS (2003-2013) / Bibliography Read more »

Al-Khalidi and V. Tanner, “Sectarian Violence: Radical Groups Divide Internal Displacement in Iraq,” Washington, D.C., the Brookings Institution-University of Bern Project on Internal Displacement, 2006   D. Gregory, “The Biopolitics of Baghdad: Counterinsurgency and the Counter-city,” Human Geography, Vol.1 (2008) …

The City of Walls – The Formation – Bilbography Read more »

Image source: Road Closed For Security Due To Increased Attacks In Baghdad. November 4, 2003. Getty Images, Baghdad. Accessed December 13, 2017. http://www.gettyimages.co.uk/detail/news-photo/army-soldier-with-the-1st-armored-division-135th-regiment-news-photo/2698248#army-soldier-with-the-1st-armored-division-135th-regiment-sets-up-the-picture-id2698248.   So what had happened before the incident shown in figure 1?   The foreigners lived inside …

BAGHDAD – THE CITY OF WALLS (2003-2013) / The CPA arrivals to the Green Zone Read more »

“It’s a painful feeling like [I live] in a prison. I cannot go wherever I want anymore”, complained a 53-year-old housewife, living in Adhamiyah, one of the security zones in Baghdad (Planning in Baghdad: how years of conflict have shaped …

Infrastructural impact of the walls – Open Space and its psychological Impact Read more »

Image source: Saman , Moises. April 24, 2008. The New York Times, Baghdad. Accessed December 13, 2017. https://static01.nyt.com/images/2008/09/15/world/greenzone_baghdadblog.jpg. Entering the Green Zone – For the “outsiders” who tried to enter the Green zone from the chaos of Iraq, it was …

BAGHDAD – THE CITY OF WALLS (2003-2013) / Daily life inside the bomb busted Green Zone: Part II Read more »

Separation? – Daily life inside the Green Zone was quite extreme, experienced by two different groups of people, the Iraqi and the Americans. In fact, there was almost zero interaction between them, since there was so much open space, the …

BAGHDAD – THE CITY OF WALLS (2003-2013) / Daily life inside the bomb busted Green Zone: Part I Read more »

Hassan Fathy and Continuity in Islamic Arts and Architecture -by Ahmad Hamid The book dissected Fathy’s ideology and work in details. Besides introducing his work in a general way, the author also talked about Fathy’s view and definition on sustainability, …

Hassan Fathy and Continuity in Islamic Arts and Architecture Read more »

  Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad  by Hoshiar Nooraddin in Planning Middle Eastern Cities: An Urban Kaleidoscope in a Globalizing World   This chapter has the most comprehensive description on the political and social …

Globalization and the Search for Modern Local Architecture: Learning from Baghdad Read more »

The approaches of Ekistics, which were born out of a modernist thinking, was proven to be too simplistic for a planning of a city. Ekistics attempted to use scientific approaches to analyze sites and break them down into manageable data …

3.2 Clash of Ideologies: an Analysis of Ekistics in Baghdad according to Islamic Principles Read more »