Shams-ol-‘Emara Source: Mirza Mahmud Khan, Malek ol-Shu’ara, 1825/1869 Shams-ol-‘Emara was the first of a series of European-inspired buildings constructed by Maseroddin Shah within the Arg, which was the Royal Citadel within the 19th century city of Tehran. It was an …

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Chapter 3 – The Program The key aspects of Reza Shah’s reformation include new street and processional routes, large public spaces, sculpture as a medium for planned state iconography, new national institutions housing monumental public buildings and the resurgence of …

III. First Step to Modernization – Reza Shah’s Reformation Program Read more »