Water supply and sanitation  In the past decade, there has been an emphasis on rural water supply and sanitation. Water-supply coverage is officially stated to have increased from 13 per cent to 27 per cent and sanitation from 5 per …

The Post-1988 Urban Works Programme and Satelite Town Resettlement II: Water supply and sanitation, Education, Health and Welfare Read more »

Transport and communications Before 1988, the number of commuting trips between downtown area and the old suburban area were equally distributed among the railway, bus and private cars. After 1988, with the expansion of development to the East, North and …

The Post-1988 Urban Works Programme and Satelite Town Resettlement I: Transport and communications, Energy and Construction Read more »

In the period between the independence through the 1980s, the city has expanded from the original small living quarter along the Yangon River towards the north, making an elongated urban area. In the late 1980s, the city of Yangon has …

New Towns(1989-2000), Satellite Towns(1958-1960), and Industrial Zones(1995-2002) in Yangon Read more »

Since the early 1990s, an international embargo has been imposed in Myanmar by Western powers against the military power, established in the country since the first coup in 1962. In parallel, the government, initially socialist, decided to open its territory …

Yangon ”Emerging Metropolis” Challenges for the Authorities and Resilience of the Yangonites Read more »

In 1940, the city covered an area of 98.5 square kilometer with a population of 450,000. Since then the city has grown to 3.5 million populations with 593 square kilometer in 1997. Due to the development of new satellite towns …

Planned Urban Expansion after 1988 Map and Township Population Density from 1991 to 2001 Read more »

Human Settlements Sector Review: Union of Myanmar   Background to the Sector Review The setting for this Review was a period of extreme political uncertainty in the weeks before the general election in May 1990. Recent shifts towards a liberalization …

“Human Settlements Sector Review: Union of Myanmar” by UN Centre for Human Settlements Read more »

Yangon, the former capital city of Myanmar and its main gate-way to the world, has been considered as the most suitable location for the majority of non-agricultural activities in Myanmar in the last decade. In the past few years, Yangon …

Current Trends of Urban Development in Yangon City and Its Implications on The Environment Read more »

Purpose of the Report: Yangon Region, the largest economic center of Myanmar, has a population of approximately 7.36 million in 2014 (National Census). However, infrastructure has become decrepit due to limited investment and technical support caused by long economic sanction, …

Bibliography V: The Project for Updating the Strategic Urban Development Plan of the Greater Yangon: FINAL REPORT II Read more »

Abstract: Urban development in Yangon caused higher population density due to historical reasons. Consequently, the government carried out a resettlement program by establishing new towns to relieve the problems, which arose due to the lower standard of living of urban …

Bibliography IV: AN ANALYSIS OF RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM (CASE STUDY: DAGON MYOTHIT AND AYEMYATHAYA MYOTHIT) Read more »

  Abstract: Given its particular history of development, many cities and towns in Myanmar are characterized by a rare, genuine cultural vibrancy and uniqueness, which has been lost in many other places in Asia over the past decades due to …

Bibliography III: Yangon’s Urban Heritage: Reassessing the Historic Stages of Development. Read more »

Abstract: Change has marked Yangon, Myanmar’s capital city in recent years. Most notably the establishment of three new towns by the ruling State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in the late 1980s increased the city’s area to more than …

Bibliography II: Yangon: The Emergence of a New Spatial Order in Myanmar’s Capital City Read more »

About the writer: Elizabeth Rhoads recently completed her PhD in Law at the Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London and is currently a post-doctoral researcher in University College London’s Development Planning Unit. Her interests are in urban property, …

Bibliography I: FORCED EVICTIONS AS URBAN PLANNING? TRACES OF COLONIAL LAND CONTROL PRACTICES IN YANGON, MYANMAR Read more »

Four main pillars for the New Yangon City have been selected and emphasized as principal enablers for New Yangon City to be able to become a desired living community and a business destination where industries and services can provide jobs …

Narrative V: New Yangon City 2040 – Final Master Plan: Resilient City, Intelligent City, Green City and People’s City Read more »

  Quoted from the document: Chapter III Duties and Responsibilities of the Committee 7. The Committee shall, in respect of the following duties and responsibilities, lay down the policy, give guidance, supervise or implement:- (a) preparation of civil projects and …

Document V: The State Law and Order Restoration Council Document Read more »

In 1987,72 per cent of the active labor force was engaged in agriculture, livestock, fishery and forestry. Agriculture alone accounts for over 60 percent of the total workforce. Paddy cultivation is the predominant activity and although rural cash incomes are …

Narrative V. Yangon: Post-1988 Rural Resettlement Program, Aye Mya Thaye Read more »

“‘Establish New Yangon as a hub of growth and innovation at par with other cities in Southeast Asia by harnessing local potential based on international best practices” The expansion of Yangon City across the river is a strategic initiative to …

Narrative IV: New Yangon City 2040 – Consultants of the International Companies Read more »

The relative transparency of the Swiss Challenge The framework agreement marks the first stage of the NYDC Challenge Model where a company that is qualified and competent to undertake the first phase of the development is selected to submit a …

Narrative III: New Yangon City: a Controversial Blueprint – the relative transparency of the Swiss Challenge and the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Read more »

On May 2, 2018, H.E. Daw Nilar Kyaw, Minister of Electricity, Industry, Transport and Communication and Chairperson of New Yangon Development Company Limited (“NYDC”) today signed a framework agreement with Hong Kong-listed company, China Communications Construction Company Ltd. (“CCCC”), for …

Narrative II: New Yangon City 2040: a Controversial Blueprint – The blurry response towards the Contentious Chinese Company Read more »

The indefinite suspension of the Yangon 2040 plan On September 22, 2014, the Yangon Region Hluttaw convened a special session to discuss the Yangon new town plan, on developing the land west of Yangon River (Myat and Yee 2015). The …

Narrative I: Laying the first stone of the Castle: The bumpy start of the New Yangon City 2040 Read more »

Urban resettlement programs by nature should provide residents the urban infrastructure and urban socio economic opportunities. Urban resettlement usually relocates citizens from blighted areas of the city to areas outside of it, which has been undertaken in reaction to problems …

Narrative IV. Yangon: Post-1988 Urban Resettlement Program, Dagon and Hlaingtharya. Read more »

During the colonial period, public-sector housing was constructed by the Public Works Department as tied staff quarters assigned according to rank. Rental levels were based on building costs recovered over 75 years at a 3 to 5 per cent interest …

Housing as a social right for vulnerable social groups–Housing Policy in Yangon (1988 to Post-1990) Read more »

The economy before 1988 In 1988, GDP per capita was $US282, well below the average for low-income countries of $US310. Absolute poverty leading to food insufficiency is reportedly rare, although the urban population and people in remote areas suffered from …

The Starting Point of Globalization–SLORC’s “Open Economy“ policies (1988-89) Read more »