Shams-ol-‘Emara Source: Mirza Mahmud Khan, Malek ol-Shu’ara, 1825/1869 Shams-ol-‘Emara was the first of a series of European-inspired buildings constructed by Maseroddin Shah within the Arg, which was the Royal Citadel within the 19th century city of Tehran. It was an …

III. “European” Style Architecture in the Qajar Period Read more »

Chapter 3 – The Program The key aspects of Reza Shah’s reformation include new street and processional routes, large public spaces, sculpture as a medium for planned state iconography, new national institutions housing monumental public buildings and the resurgence of …

III. First Step to Modernization – Reza Shah’s Reformation Program Read more »

The Yeongdong area was low, causing frequent flooding of the Han River. After being submerged in water, the water repeatedly drained, creating a new wide white sand every year. To solve the rapidly growing population problem in Seoul, Gangnam development …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Reclaiming Han River, the beginning of villages and catalyst of change Read more »

On December 31, 1982, the Urban Redevelopment Act was revised, and the existing Redevelopment Project was divided into Urban Redevelopment Project and Housing Improvement Redevelopment Project, and the Land Development Corporation was newly designated as the implementer of the redevelopment …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Urban Redevelopment Act on Jamsil Read more »

In 1981, the National Sports Arena was planned together with the Olympic Village to provide a convenient competition venue for the athletes. In 1984, the National Sports Arena was renamed as Olympic Park since the park was not only providing …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Jamsil Olympic Park, restoration and reinterpretation of cultures Read more »

The basic plan for the comprehensive development of Jamsil District in 1974 was very different from the comprehensive development plan of Jamsil District in 1970. In 1970, when the plan for Jamsil Island was first established, the creation of Jamsil …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Jamsil Seokchon Lake Park, new concept of all-in-one neighbourhood Read more »

Socially, the upper and lower classes and economically, the wealthy and poor responded more favorably to the Seoul Olympic Games, feeling more pride and greater self-esteem. On the other hand, the young, Honam region residents, socially middle lower class and …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Modernisation, changes of democratisation under 1988 Olympic Read more »

With the 1988 Olympics, South Korean government officials and business leaders argued that the country had achieved the dream of entering the top echelon of nation-states. In reality, however, Seoul was the only part of South Korea with access to …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / How Olympic Redevelopment Erased South Korea’s Past Read more »

Seoul Olympic Park was built by the Seoul Metropolitan Government to host the 88 Seoul Olympics. Around Mongchon Toseong, the former Hanseong Baekje Kingdom, sports facilities such as a racecourse, weightlifting stadium, and gymnastics stadium, and public facilities such as …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Excavation of Mongchontoseong Fortress Read more »

Chang’an Avenue and the Modernization of Chinese Architecture written by Shuishan Yu, the book analysis the relationship between art and ideology in modern China and provides a deep study on the structure of the Chinese modernization project by providing a …

[Bibliography] Chang’an Avenue and the Modernization of Chinese Architecture Read more »

The Architecture of Motherland written by Liang Sicheng in 1954, describes his views on ancient Chinese architecture and ways to preserve the cultural heritage. Throughout the book, Liang Chen emphasize on the historical value and significance of ancient Chinese architecture …

[Bibliography] The Architecture of Motherland (“祖國的建築 “) Read more »

Written by Lu Duanfang, Remaking Chinese Urban Form provides an analysis of how Chinese society constructed itself through the making and remaking of its built environment. The author shows that as China’s quest for modernity created a never ending scarcity …

[Bibliography] Remaking Chinese Urban Form: Modernity, Scarcity and Space, 1949-2005 Read more »

Throughout the 1950s Liang Sicheng’s architecture advices and proposals was rejected again and again, other than his stand on preserving the entire old city which in return received backlash on his opposition to the party’s ideologies and advances, da wuding …

The Battle between Tradition v.s Modernism: Da wuding | Part 4 Read more »

Shortly after the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the country formed an alliance with the Soviet Union. During the period  they allied, China invited thousands of Soviet technicians, engineers, architects, planners and scholars to help reconstruct …

The “Imported” Classicist formula: Beijing’s search for national form in 1949 | Part 1 Read more »

This book talks about how transport infrastructure has been developed in Seoul and how they provided planning implications for three cities: Jakarta, Manila, and Ho Chi Minh City. In the chapters about Seoul, it introduces the reasons leading to the …

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Developing Transport Infrastructure in Seoul Read more »

This research clarifies the arrangement plan of the Seoul Olympic sports facilities and the development and expansion of infrastructure related to the Olympic Games. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games was an international sports event that showcased the high economic growth …

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Plans of the Olympic Facilities and the Road Network Read more »

Special Thanks to Vahe Karaelian for his generous help in the translation process! I have only chosen to translate the full chapter of  “City planning Project of Yerevan” in the Russian magazine Architecture Of Leningrad  that was published in the 1938 …

V. Soviet’s perspective of Tamanyan’s City Planning_ Translation Read more »

The translation of this piece of document was made possible under the extremely kind help of Santhosh Sivan and his fellow friends! From this official documentation, we could see the construction procedure, establishment of new building regulations and various other …

IV. Armenian’s Official Documentation of Tamanyan’s City Planning _Full Translation Read more »