Chapter 3 – The Program The key aspects of Reza Shah’s reformation include new street and processional routes, large public spaces, sculpture as a medium for planned state iconography, new national institutions housing monumental public buildings and the resurgence of …

III. First Step to Modernization – Reza Shah’s Reformation Program Read more »

The Yeongdong area was low, causing frequent flooding of the Han River. After being submerged in water, the water repeatedly drained, creating a new wide white sand every year. To solve the rapidly growing population problem in Seoul, Gangnam development …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Reclaiming Han River, the beginning of villages and catalyst of change Read more »

In 1981, the National Sports Arena was planned together with the Olympic Village to provide a convenient competition venue for the athletes. In 1984, the National Sports Arena was renamed as Olympic Park since the park was not only providing …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Jamsil Olympic Park, restoration and reinterpretation of cultures Read more »

The basic plan for the comprehensive development of Jamsil District in 1974 was very different from the comprehensive development plan of Jamsil District in 1970. In 1970, when the plan for Jamsil Island was first established, the creation of Jamsil …

1988 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Jamsil Seokchon Lake Park, new concept of all-in-one neighbourhood Read more »

Throughout the 1950s Liang Sicheng’s architecture advices and proposals was rejected again and again, other than his stand on preserving the entire old city which in return received backlash on his opposition to the party’s ideologies and advances, da wuding …

The Battle between Tradition v.s Modernism: Da wuding | Part 4 Read more »

Shortly after the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the country formed an alliance with the Soviet Union. During the period  they allied, China invited thousands of Soviet technicians, engineers, architects, planners and scholars to help reconstruct …

The “Imported” Classicist formula: Beijing’s search for national form in 1949 | Part 1 Read more »

The sensitive Social-political context Tamanyan’s initial master plan has visualised Yerevan was developed during pre-Stalinist Bolshevism. Through the incorporation of the Mount Ararat, new axis, vernacular materials and building styles as well as legacy monuments, Tamanyan has reduced Yerevan’s stance …

V. Nation-building through YEREVAN- Was the Utopia realised? Read more »

The Materiality- The Pink Yerevan The pink cityscape we saw in Yerevan nowaday could be very much credited to A.Tamanyan.  The soft rosy appearance was resulted by application of volcanol tuff in the construction. This particular pink tuff was only …

IV. Nation-building through YEREVAN- The Materiality, Architectural Form and Ornaments Read more »

The city Yerevan is surrounded by Mount Ararat on three sides and Tamanyan has taken the natural landscape of the city as the key idea of his master planning. Tamanyan’s plan was circular, akin to the garden city. In Tamanyan’s …

III. Nation-building through YEREVAN- National narration through Urban Form Read more »

“The main features of Howard’s scheme were: (1) the purchase of a large area of agricultural land within a ring fence; (2) the planning of a compact town surrounded by a wide rural belt; (3) the accommodation of residents, industry, …

II. Nation-building through YEREVAN- A.Tamanyan’ s application of Garden City Read more »

The Lost Of The Two Centers (Before 1920) In the nineteenth century, the cultural and political center had not been Yerevan, but Tiflis and Constantinople, which were the capital city of Georgia and the capital of the Ottoman Empire respectively. …

I. Nation-building through YEREVAN- A.Tamanyan’s realisation of Utopia Read more »

After Little Boy was dropped in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, the city gained international attention because it was a deliberate move by the United States (to win the war) that caused massive, unprecedented destruction. What followed the bombing, which …

The Image of Hiroshima: Media Portrayal and Military Tourism Read more »

Horwitz’s masterplan corresponding to the changing conditions of the growing Tel Aviv in the 1950s sparked both positive and negative consequences. With original intentionality to distinguish and demolish the classist segregation occurring between north and south of the city, the …

3.5 Ethnic Diversity and Horwitz Plan Developmental Foundations Read more »

Following the initial establishment of the Central Bus station, the opposition that has developed through the narratives of the town planners and Arie Ritz created immediate impact upon a nearby district Neve Sha’anan.  Originally a residential district for low income …

2.5 Impact Upon Residents in Neve Sha’anan Post Central Bus Station Read more »

“We are powerless. No matter who we talk to, it is all the same for us.”[1] Centering on the socio-environmental debate of Jakarta Bay Reclamation is the welfare of the fishermen community. They are constantly mentioned from the debate of …

Jakarta Bay Reclamation – A 35-Year Long Policy Discourse VII: For the Public, Voices of the “Public” Read more »

Reconstruction in Hiroshima were split into two streams: the first is categorized under highly urgent emergency measures while the other is reconstruction plan that is also applied to 115 other cities within the country, adhering to the “Basic Policy for …

Vision to Execution Part II: City Plan and Who’s Paying for it Read more »

Anies Baswedan took office as Jakarta’s Governor for the 2017-22 term after winning against the incumbent administration led by Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok). Following his electoral promise, he proceeded to stop all reclamation activities in Jakarta. The Jakarta Bay Reclamation …

Jakarta Bay Reclamation – A 35-Year Long Policy Discourse VI: For the Public, Who is the Public? [Part Two: Debate of Experts] Read more »

The Jakarta Bay Reclamation in general posed a clear environmental threat, as conducted from studies by experts. Yet, it still becomes a chosen solution for many urban issues in Jakarta.[1] Aside from ecological issues, political debates also question the actors …

Jakarta Bay Reclamation – A 35-Year Long Policy Discourse V: For the Public, Who is the Public? [Part One: Governor Electoral Debate] Read more »

The 17 islets of Jakarta Bay Reclamation is already recorded in the 2014 Detailed Spatial Plans and Zoning Regulations for 2030. Further details of the plan still remained to be discussed, which is carried out in the 2015 Draft Plan. …

Jakarta Bay Reclamation – A 35-Year Long Policy Discourse IV: Corruption and Stagnation (2015-2017) Read more »

It was unavoidable to take over the rights of properties from the original owners of the targeted land and readjust the shape of land parcels when the government was going to build the roads and bridges and develop the southern …

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Part V: Land Readjustment Program – the Win-win Solution for the Government and the Landowners Read more »

Activist, Experts, and Government Within the Jakarta Bay Reclamation discourse, there are some NGOs that have popped up here and there, notably: The Indonesian Forum for Environment (WALHI), People’s Coalition for Fisheries Justice (KIARA), and Save Jakarta Bay Coalition (KSTJ). …

Jakarta Bay Reclamation – A 35-Year Long Policy Discourse III: Roles of the Activists Read more »

The Central Government (President and Ministry), Provincial Government, Developers, Experts Following the issuance of the 1995 Presidential Decree, the first policy dispute emerged in 2003 when the Ministry of Environment issued a decree titled “Inadequacy of the North Coast Reclamation …

Jakarta Bay Reclamation – A 35-Year Long Policy Discourse II: Rising Ecological Concerns Read more »

Bridges are built for overcoming the geographical constraints of the transportation of people and goods. Cities grow and expand throughout time and bridges are indivisible from the process of city formation and affecting its potential growth and outcomes. However, bridges …

Pre-88 Olympic / 1976-1986 / Part IV: Bridges and Expressways – ‘The world to Seoul, Seoul into the World’ Read more »