Hiroshima

“After the atomic bomb’s denotation in Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, ruins and fire swept the city. The post-war reconstruction started at high speed following the 1948 “Peace Memorial City Construction Law” and the administrative project aiming to rebuilt Hiroshima into an “International Peace and Cultural City” in post-1970. In contrast to the identity of Hiroshima before the atomic bomb attack, which was the military center with elevating concentration of military facilities during the two world wars, the city of peace became its new identity. The dramatic shift from a military city to the mecca of peace did not stop the city from gaining the international attention, as it turned out to be the desirable location for holding international conferences on peace as well as social issues. The choice of the ideology in reconstruction of the city did not only help Hiroshima recover from its pain, but also acted a remembrance of destruction resulting from the nation’s aggression in the Second World War.”

– Jessica Chong, “Change in Identity of Hiroshima in Post-war Reconstruction,” 2014

Narratives


The Image of Hiroshima: Media Portrayal and Military Tourism

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

After Little Boy was dropped in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, the city gained international attention because it was a deliberate move by the United States (to win the war) that caused massive, unprecedented destruction. What followed the bombing, which is Japan’s surrender in August 15, 1945, affected the whole world and effectively ended WWII. ...

Vision to Execution Part II: City Plan and Who’s Paying for it

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Reconstruction in Hiroshima were split into two streams: the first is categorized under highly urgent emergency measures while the other is reconstruction plan that is also applied to 115 other cities within the country, adhering to the “Basic Policy for the Reconstruction of War-damaged Areas” enacted by the Cabinet in 1945 (Mizumoto, 2015).  The first ...

Vision to Execution Part I: Peace Memorial Construction Law Commands All Hands on Deck

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Since its formulation in 1946, the process of executing Peace Memorial City Plan for Hiroshima was met with many challenges, particularly the lack of resources. Japan lost a lot of manpower, industries, and money because of WWII, and post-war inflation bogged the government down to near bankruptcy. Many regions needed total reconstruction due to the ...

War and the City: Projecting Peace (Pt. 2)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

While critics questioned the humanity of the atomic bomb, at the same time, they acknowledged that the bomb saved American lives that an invasion would have cost and the peace-keeping potential of the bomb. In a cartoon published on the New York Times, the atomic power is associated with “a peaceful earth”, indicating the hopefulness ...

War and the City: Projecting Peace (Pt. 1)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

To this day, the question of whether or not dropping the atomic bomb on Hiroshima was justifiable remains controversial. Already before the bomb had been dropped onto Hiroshima, scientists working in the project warned against the use of the bomb on a city and appealed to the moral conscience. In two separate petitions to President ...

War and the City: City as a Target (pt. 3)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

On the 6th of August 1945, the U.S. Air Force dropped one bomb on Hiroshima, forever marking Hiroshima as the first city to be atom-bombed. Aimed at the Aioi bridge at the heart of the city, the bomb exploded 580 m above ground, creating concentric circles of destruction around it . Within a 2 km radius, ...

War and the City: the City as a Target (Pt. 2)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Whether to be conquered or destroyed, cities have always been a target of conflict and war. This can be evidenced by the walls that surround historic cities, or the definition of a city as a walled construction. It is only recently in the modern era, when notions of human rights and war crimes emerged along ...

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park: Axial Composition

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Kenzo Tange and his group won the first prize at the 1949 Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park competition. The opportunity allowed him to construct the park as the core of Hiroshima in the later development. The initial concept of the park intended to portray the narration of the tragic history. 2 axes intercepted at the Atomic-bomb ...

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and Japanese Tradition

Kongpiyacharn Napat

As an attempt to recover the city after the bombing, the Hiroshima project was initiated by the allied to reconstructed the city under the narration of a city of world peace. Even though the occupation ended in 1952, the attempt was challenged by the anti-nuclear and anti-U.S. movements, claiming to be associated with rising nationalism. ...

People Behind the Hiroshima Reconstruction Plan Part II: The Role of the Individual – Kenzo Tange and the City’s Residents

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

The special regional and national committees created by the government weren’t the only ones rowing the boat to realize Hiroshima Peace Memorial City. Building a functional Hiroshima that also symbolizes peace was a personal aspiration for the individuals that lived in Hiroshima, as well as Kenzo Tange (architect of the Peace Memorial City Plan). Residents of ...

People Behind the Hiroshima Reconstruction Plan Part I: Bureaucratic Players

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

A project as monumental as rebuilding Hiroshima from desolation caused by the A-bomb called for highly rigorous, resourceful, and systematic teams. This role needs to be filled by the government. As urgent as it was for the regional government (or what was left of it) to kickstart reconstruction work, after Japan’s surrender on August 15, ...

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and Landscape Design

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Kenzo Tange’s Peach Memorial Park proposal was first seen at a design competition held in 1949. The proposal consisted of a centric design that used the A-Bomb Dome as the core point. From the centre, he introduced east-west and north-south axes intercepting at the centre. These axes stretched across the landscape to reach multiple structures ...

The Transition of Hiroshima and Peace Memorial Park

Kongpiyacharn Napat

The original role of Hiroshima, since the early twentieth century, was a military, industrial, educational centre for Japan. With all these roles, Hiroshima was the city that would lead Japan to modernization. The first planning system was implemented in 1919, further advancing its development, which eventually led to being the target of the bombing. After building ...

War and the City: The City as a Target (Pt. 1)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Though aircraft began to serve different functions of war by the end ...

Evaluation of the Peace-Oriented Development of Hiroshima

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

In face of Tange’s design and other proposals for the urban development of Hiroshima, there are a few limitations that should be addressed. One fact would be the similar urban layout used during the reconstruction and planning of Hiroshima, which led to a more ubiquitous urban form as with other Japanese cities. As the personnel involved ...

Historical Documents


Cover of Hiroshima Tourist Pamphlet 1946 and 1954

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Tange and Associates Zoning Plan of Hiroshima 1949

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Road and Park Planning Maps 1946

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Hiroshima Peace Memorial City Construction Law

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Political Cartoons About Atomic Bomb (Aug 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Newspaper Articles Regarding the Atomic Bomb (Aug 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Petitions to the President Regarding Atomic Bomb (Jul 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Initial Observations by General Ferrell (Sep 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Notes on Initial Meeting of Target Committee (May 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

OSS Map of Japanese Aircraft Industry (1942)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

OSS Map of Japanese Industry by Prefecture (1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

U.S. Army Plan of Hiroshima and the Bomb’s Destruction (1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Japanese soldier walking through Hiroshima ruins (Sep 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey Aerial Topographical Map of Hiroshima (1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Third Target Committee Meeting (May 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Second Target Committee Meeting (May 1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Japanese Hiroshima City Plan of Bomb Destruction (1945)

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Changes in Planning documents from 1949 – 1966

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Kenzo Tange’s Hiroshima Peace Park 1949 Proposal

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park Cenotaph Proposals

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Blueprints of the Memorial Museum

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum Photographs (1995)

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Hiroshima is Being Built as a City Symbolizing Peace Part II: News Reports on Hiroshima Reconstruction in 1946 from the Lens of the People

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Quick and Temporary: News Reports on Hiroshima Reconstruction from 1946 form the Lens of the People

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Pre-attack mosaic view of Hiroshima, Japan

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Motomachi Mid-rise Housing Plan

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Peace Memorial Park Competition Result Announcement

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Changes in Reconstruction Planning

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Hiroshima – Initial City Planning after the Bombing (1946)

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Hiroshima – Background of the City and Atomic Bombing

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

 

Bibliography


The view from under the mushroom cloud: The Chugoku Shimbun newspaper and the Hiroshima Peace Media Center

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

After hiroshima: Allied military occupations and the fate of japan’s empire, 1945-1947

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Scales and Perspectives of Resilience: The Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Tange’s Peace Memorial

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Interview With Sachio Otani

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Burning Japan: Air Force Bombing Strategy Change in the Pacific

Choi Priscilla Chunying

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Research on the Plan of Reconstruction Hiroshima: A study on the activities of the architect Kenzo Tange in Hiroshima

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Town development for the reconstruction of Hiroshima

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Reconstructing Hiroshima and Preserving the Reconstructed City

Choi Priscilla Chunying

Studies on the Relation to plan-making of Conception of Hiroshima Peace City Construction Plan after the winning of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park Competition by Kenzo Tange

Kongpiyacharn Napat

The Role of Post-War Reconstruction Planning in Hiroshima’s Image-Shift to a Peace Memorial City

Kongpiyacharn Napat

The Myth of the Vanquished: The Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Kenzo Tange by Robin Boyd

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Synergy Between Central and Regional Government: Timeline of Formulating Hiroshima Reconstruction Plan 1945-1950

Trisnadi Cheryl Gracia

Landscape design in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

Kongpiyacharn Napat

Rebuilding Urban Japan After 1945

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Research on the plan of reconstruction Hiroshima- A study on the activities of the architect Kenzo Tange in Hiroshima

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Planning Process of Hiroshima Peace Park Project by Kenzo Tange

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Learning from Hiroshima’s Reconstruction Experience: Reborn from the Ashes

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Process Towards the Preservation of Genbaku-Dome 1945-1952: The Site of Genbaku-dome and Itself

Chiu Man Yan Lydia

Tange’s Postwar Transition and the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park

Ho Ming Yan Charmain

The Atomic City: Military Tourism and Urban Identity in Postwar Hiroshima

Ho Ming Yan Charmain

Hiroshima’s Path to Reconstruction

Ho Ming Yan Charmain

Recovery of Hiroshima from the Atomic Bomb

Ho Ming Yan Charmain

Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park and the Making of Japanese Postwar Architecture

Ho Ming Yan Charmain

Our of Ground Zero: Case Studies in Urban Reinvention

Lin Yingying Lynn

Kenzo Tange: Architecture for the World

Lin Yingying Lynn

Conception of Hiroshima Peace Park Project by Kenzo Tange

Lin Yingying Lynn

The Urban Core in Japanese Planning (1930s-1950s): Evolving Perceptions on the Spatial and Social Form of the Metropolitan Center on the Mainland and in the Colonies

Lin Yingying Lynn

Changes in Planning Zone of Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park Proposed by Kenzo Tange and Their Significance

Lin Yingying Lynn

 

Abu Dhabi Amman | Ankara | Bangkok | Beijing | Chengdu | Chongqing | Datong | Delhi | Dhaka | Dubai | Hiroshima | Ho Chi Minh City | Hong Kong | Istanbul | Jakarta | Jerusalem | Jingdezhen | Kuala Lumpur | KolkataKyoto | Macau | Mumbai | Phnom Penh | Seoul | Shanghai | Shenzhen | Singapore | Taipei | Tashkent | Tehran | Tel Aviv | Tianjin | Tokyo | Ulaanbaatar | Xi’anYangon | Yerevan |