“Kolkata’s importance as the economic centre of Eastern India is due to the concentration of industry, financial services and commercial activities within the city and in the Calcutta Metropolitan Area (CMA), that began with the East India Company.”

– Charlotte Chan, “The Rise and Importance of Kolkata,” 2016


Kolkata: Refugee Influx

Charlotte Chan

The Partition of Bengal in 1947 was the cause of a massive refugee influx between 1947 and 1971.  Not only was there an unprecedented strain on infrastructure systems; space itself became a diminishing commodity.  Of the early wave of refugee families, 55 per cent were high-caste and 13 per cent middle-caste.  Of the refugee families, ...

Kolkata: Connectivity

Charlotte Chan

Kolkata is one of the oldest operating major river ports in the country and the third most populous city in India, with about 15 million people living in its metropolitan area.  With its prime location as discussed previously and transport connectivity potential, it is unfortunate that the lacking in urban planning could not take advantage of this, ...

Kolkata: The Beginning

Charlotte Chan

                                        KOLKATA 1690 (Fig. 1) In the year 1690, Job Charnock, a company agent and chief of engish factory established the important centre for trade and commerce in Sutanti Village on the Eastern banks of the river Hooghly.This was the origin of the city of Calcutta. During this time the Villages by connected by a route from the ...

Kolkata: The Bengal Renaissance

Charlotte Chan

The changes that characterise the Bangla literary tradition of the 19th century is deeply and thoroughly influenced by the social reform movement known as the ‘Bengal Renaissance’. With the advent of the British East India Company’s rule over Bengal, the mainstream literary tradition of the land was transported from its rural base to a highly ‘sophisticated’ ...

The Rise and Importance of Kolkata

Charlotte Chan

The rise of Kolkata, previously Calcutta, began with the British India period.  Calcutta was the capital of British India from 1772 to 1931.  The Governor General of India, a person with great power and whose decisions controlled the lives of more people than any other leader of his time, was situated there.  Calcutta’s later economic ...

Kolkata (1960-1970) / Evaluation of Salt Lake City

Ngan Chun Yin

The implementation of the modernist inspired master plan in Salt Lake City has been seen as successful. Showing ideas from Garden City, Radiant City, etc., a clear order of streets, residential blocks and greeneries is established. Furthermore, diversity and slow developments are vital in creating a functional and vibrant community in the city. The master plan ...

Kolkata (1960-1970) / Public Spaces of Salt Lake City

Ngan Chun Yin

Similar to the Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City, there is a park (Central Park) located at the centre of the city surrounded by radial streets and roads in Salt Lake City. However, the use of the park is constrained. The park is gated and is not accessible from most of the streets, but only from a ...

Kolkata (1960-1970) / “Slow Development” of Salt Lake City

Ngan Chun Yin

The development of the Salt Lake City had taken a long period of time of nearly forty years. Instead of rapidly implementing the master plan, a ‘slow development’ approach was adopted. Not only did this approach relieved the financial burden to the government, but also provided opportunities for the development to adapt to the changing ...


So Yuk Pui

DECENTRALIZATION VS. HIGH DENSITY   Kolkata has truly been one of the densest urban communities on the planet. Its direct development along the Hooghly River demonstrates a high fixation design. A straight development of foundation dependably suggests a higher traffic thickness than a scattered framework, since the flow of traffic fundamentally needs to experience all the transitional ...


So Yuk Pui

NEW AND OLD TOWN A town ought to be laid out as a different entire which is in the meantime integral with the old – existing town. Get simple associations with the current focus and direct way to deal with railroad station Sealdah. Adjusting the goes for lucid and minimal structure with standard for the open space ...

Kolkata (1960-1970) / Salt Lake City and the Utopian Models

Ngan Chun Yin

“It has grown into a lovely garden city, just as I had planned. There are community housing, parks, clean roads and the traffic management seemed fine. I did feel a bit nostalgic today. But more than anything else, I felt proud that the city had developed just the way I had wanted it to,” — ...

Kolkata (1960-1970) / Master Plan of Salt Lake City

Ngan Chun Yin

The Rise of Salt Lake City Salt Lake City was developed between 1958 and 1965 in reaction to the rapid population increase in Kolkata since Indian independence in 1947. Migration of around one million people from Bangladesh and East Pakistan to Kolkata in 1947 and continuous influx of refugees since then exhausted resources and infrastructures in ...


So Yuk Pui

All-inclusive strategy General idea reflects decided standards and certain breaking points of the territory at one side and the way and financing at the other. All things considered it is a consequence of various persuasive components additionally is a condition and question of the particular method for urbanization: the town content comprises parallel and sufficient noteworthiness ...

Slums Definition

So Yuk Pui

Sorts of Slums In Kolkata, there are two general classifications of ghettos: those that are authoritatively approved are called bustees. There are additionally an extensive number of squatter settlements, which are not approved. As an aftereffect of the mechanical development and fast urbanization of Kolkata, specialists from all over Eastern and Northern India filled this city ...

The History of Kolkata

So Yuk Pui

Under three centuries back, Kolkata was a provincial region in Lower Bengal, a flat rice field mixed with a couple scattered towns on the riverbanks. Nobody would have said that a “city of castles” would in a matter of seconds emerge here. The nineteenth century, another time of improvement in business, changed this city into a ...

Historical Documents




Abu Dhabi Amman | Ankara | Bangkok | Beijing | Chengdu | Chongqing | Datong | Delhi | Dhaka | Dubai | Hiroshima | Ho Chi Minh City | Hong Kong | Istanbul | Jakarta | Jerusalem | Jingdezhen | Kuala Lumpur | KolkataKyoto | Macau | Mumbai | Phnom Penh | Seoul | Shanghai | Shenzhen | Singapore | Taipei | Tashkent | Tehran | Tel Aviv | Tianjin | Tokyo | Ulaanbaatar | Xi’anYangon | Yerevan |