Kyoto

“Kyoto is perceived as a conservation- oriented city with its prestigious cultural heritage from the ancient capital of imperial Japan. Yet there are also comments that the city is full of expression of nostalgia, which is almost inevitable. The city is so strongly cast by the sense of history and time that any attempt to construct in this city a building for the sake of the architecture itself is a reckless and overly ambitious act. Any such effort will very soon be frustrated by that ancient rhythm of the city that has long been programmed into the gene of Kyoto.”

– Danlei Huang, “City as Context,” 2014

Narratives


Religion in Kyoto Urban Remodeling 05 – ‘City of Ten Thousand Shrines’

Brian Ka Hei Chan

5.1 Uncommon Density of Temple and Shrine The creation of the Teramachidori was a very accomplished strategy in terms of the economic and defensive strengthening it provided to Kyoto, yet appears to be incomprehensible in the modern context that such a suffocating density of religious bodies was clustered within one street without even mild room for ...

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Kyoto’s Protective Boundary – Odoi [Narrative 5]

Lo Kwan Lam

Construction In 1591, Hideyoshi began constructing a wall around Kyoto, namely the Odoi. With an average of 2.6 meters high and 9.5 meters wide at its base, the Odoi depended on labor forces coming from armies of the daimyo. They mainly built the Odoi with stones and an earthen rampart, with thick stands of bamboo on ...

Religion in Kyoto Remodeling 01 – Theocracy in Japan before Remodeling

Brian Ka Hei Chan

This series of entries would focus on the religious sector within Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣 秀吉)’s 1586 Kyoto Remodeling (till 1591), providing the religious background, reasoning, and effect on the economy, defense, and cityscape as a collection of narratives. 1.1 Theocracy in Japan 「信佛法,尊神道」《日本書紀》用明天皇 (Believe in Buddhism, Respect Shinto) Religion was a major sector in Japanese society before commerce ...

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Declaration of Capital – Kyoto as a Castle Town [Narrative 4]

Lo Kwan Lam

Restoration of traditional rites and enthronement After the Cadastral Survey, Hideyoshi picked Kyoto as the capital due to its historical importance and abundance of historical remains. He then carried out several large scale urban reform schemes in Kyoto. The declaration started in the support of the restoration of the palace of the retired emperor in Kyoto.    In ...

Religion in Kyoto Urban Remodeling 04 – Religion and Regional Defense  

Brian Ka Hei Chan

4.1 Regional Defense and Religion – Structural Barrier Despite the economic surge brought by the street, Teramachidōri also acted as a defensive wall for Kyoto. The creation of Teramachidōri around the Kyoto Imperial Palace (京都御所) has a strong implication of defense. It indicates that temples in some way acquire a sufficient level of defensive properties, of ...

Religion in Kyoto Remodeling 03 – Religion and Economy

Brian Ka Hei Chan

3.1 Background Upon Creation The Teramachidōri (寺町通), in literal terms Temple Street, was a creation by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉) near Jurakudai (聚樂第, Royal Palace) in 1590 under his plan of Kyoto remodeling. This street was formerly severely destructed after the Ōnin War but appeared as an opportunity for Hideyoshi to tighten his control over the ...

Religion in Kyoto Urban Remodeling 02 – Lesson from Buddhist Uprising

Brian Ka Hei Chan

2.1 Ikkō-shū Uprisings (一向一揆) In the Age of Warring States, people were desperately keen on seeking protection, both physically and mentally, of which it fostered the promotion of religious belief as a kind of cheap and an easy-accessed means of reaching well-being. Jōdo Shinshū (浄土真宗) being a major branch of Japanese Buddhism, promoted affinity with the ...

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Subtle control via modified city layout [Narrative 3]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Background of the land allotment system After unifying Japan and understanding the city of Kyoto via cadastral surveys, Hideyoshi Toyotomi commenced the urban reform in Kyoto in around 1590, which was commonly known as the Great Urban Reconstruction.  As the social and political environment of Kyoto gradually became stabilised after war, and the improved farmland productivity was ...

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / First permanent bridge in Japan [Narrative 4]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Introduction of permanent bridges Besides reconstruction on land, Toyotomi Hideyoshi also carried out redevelopment in the water bodies. Before the introduction of permanent bridges by Hideyoshi, people crossed rivers by some small-span wooden crossings throughout centuries. These crossings were prone to destruction by fire, wind and most often by floods. Hideyoshi therefore demanded the construction of ...

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Discrepancy from the Toyotomi regime [Narrative 5]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Under the authoritative rule by Hideyoshi, key antagonists can hardly be found as opposing forces were usually eradicated. Here I would like to discuss a magistrate Maeda Gen’i, who had his own view and approach yet can simultaneously fit into Hideyoshi’s polity. Background of Maeda Gen’i The five magistrates (五奉⾏) was established by Hideyoshi in 15851, delegated ...

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Direct manipulation of peasants in land surveys [Narrative 2]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Background of the cadastral surveys As mentioned in the previous post, the power in governance and urban reconstruction was partly shared by the commoners due to the stagnant progress of recovery in Kyoto after the Onin war. When Hideyoshi Toyotomi became the dominant force in Japan, he attempted to centralise power and reunite the country. In ...

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Commoners’ contribution to the urban landscape before the Toyotomi regime [Narrative 1]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Impact of the Age of Warring State A civil war, known as the Onin war, broke out in Japan due to power struggle between 2 warlords Hosokawa Katsumoto and Yamana Sōzen, which lasted from 1467-1477. The war was followed by subsequent conflicts. These caused massive area of the city being damaged by fire. Destruction of the ...

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Building Authority through Cadastral Survey in Kyoto [Narrative 3]

Lo Kwan Lam

Government as the central authority and main executor of land policy Hideyoshi’s cadastral survey policy was successful in surveying land first in Kyoto, then all through Japan. It was considered the most efficient methodology developed at that time. One main change proposed by Hideyoshi was the centralization of land information in a government-owned booklet, namely the ...

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Cadastral Survey for Predicitng Kyoto’s Prospect [Narrative 2]

Lo Kwan Lam

Past Cadastral Survey Policy In the Sengoku period, Shoen owners would carry out cadastral surveys and published their own land records as a declaration of power. Due to the enormous power owned by Shoen owners, cadastral survey in the past was usually carried out by these owners but not the central government. The name of the ...

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Threats on Toyotomi Hideyoshi – Shoen [Narrative 1]

Lo Kwan Lam

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Threats on Toyotomi Hideyoshi - Shoen [Narrative 1]

The following articles will focus on Hideyoshi’s measures of urban reformation of Kyoto. The reformation had gone through two stages: the cadastral survey and the urban reconstruction of Kyoto as a capital.    Previous Land System—-Shoen Land System before Hideyoshi’s cadastral survey was called the Shoen, meaning field or manor. This system started in the 8th century and ...

Historical Documents


Historical Document 04 – Map of Kamigyō-Ku (上京区)

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Historical Document 05- 太閤検地帳

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Sword Hunting – Hideyoshi as the ultimate warlords[Historical Document 5]

Lo Kwan Lam

Historical Document 03 – 太閣素生記

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Historical Document 02 – The 1696 Map of Kyoto

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Historical Document 01 – Screen Painting: 洛中洛外図屏風 (Scenes in and around the Capital)

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Jurakudai – The Social Generator[Historical Document 4]

Lo Kwan Lam

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Machiya in orchestrating the urban landscape [Historical Document 3]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Enhanced connectivity [Historical Document 4]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Development of Land Record of Kyoto after Hideyoshi’s Cadastral Survey[Historical Document 3]

Lo Kwan Lam

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Geni’s engagement in Kyoto land affairs [Historical Document 5]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Land survey for the Emperor [Historical Document 2]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / De facto defence mechanism [Historical Document 1]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Hideyoshi’s Cadastral Survey Policy as a foundation of later Policies[Historical Document 2]

Lo Kwan Lam

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Background of Hideyoshi – From peasants to emperor[Historical Document 1]

Lo Kwan Lam

Diary of Governor Kunimichi Kitagaki

Tsang Ka Lee

A Plan for Lake Biwa Canal Construction / Drawings of The Suirokaku in Nanzenji Temple

Tsang Ka Lee

Urban Map of Kyoto: 1883 vs 1926

Tsang Ka Lee

Map of the National Employment Exposition in Okazaki Park and Heian Shrine

Miu Ho Yeung

Image of Sosui Canal outside Okazaki Park

Miu Ho Yeung

Image of Outer Entrance of National Employment Exposition in Okazaki Park

Miu Ho Yeung

Image of Sosui Incline for hoisting boats (京都疏水インクライン)

Miu Ho Yeung

Map of the complete Lake Biwa Canal 1:84000

Miu Ho Yeung

The Lake Biwa Canal Plan 1885-1890/ Panoramic View of Lake Biwa Canal

Choi Wai Pan

The Lake Biwa Canal Plan 1885-1890/ Three Major Canals in Japan

Choi Wai Pan

The Lake Biwa Canal Plan 1885-1890/ Technical Invention in Construction: Vertical Shaft Method

Choi Wai Pan

The Lake Biwa Canal Plan 1885-1890/ Civil Engineer: Tanabe Sakuro (1861-1944)

Choi Wai Pan

The Lake Biwa Canal Plan 1885-1890/ Incline Railway and the Canal

Choi Wai Pan

Kyoto Landscape Policy 2007/ Criticism on Preservation of Kyomachiya II

Sun Yuerong Rayna

Kyoto City Landscape Policy 2007/ Center for Street Creation

Cho Quentin

 

Bibliography


Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform/ The Drama of Warring Period [Bibliography 5]

Lo Kwan Lam

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform/ Kyoto as Hideyoshi’s Stage [Bibliography 4]

Lo Kwan Lam

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform/ Educational value of the Cadastral Survey [Bibliography 3]

Lo Kwan Lam

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform/ Archaeological investigation on Odoi [Bibliography 2]

Lo Kwan Lam

Bibliography 05 – 豊臣秀吉と京都 聚楽第・御土居と伏見城 [Toyotomi to Kyoto: Odoi, Jurakudai and Fushimi-jō]

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Bibliography 04 – 太閤の夢の夢

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Bibliography 03 – The Imperial Law and the Buddhist Law [王法と仏法]

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Bibliography 02 – The Chronicles of Japan [日本書紀]

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Bibliography 01 – Historical Background of the Formation of the Kami-Buddhist Amalgamation Paradigm

Brian Ka Hei Chan

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Preservation vs Development? [Bibliography 5]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / The Machiya living style [Bibliography 3]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Bridges as usable spaces in city [Bibliography 4]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Protagonist of Kyoto Urban Reform / Land Review in Tokugawa Edo Period [Bibliography 1]

Lo Kwan Lam

Commmoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Interclass interactivity in The Grand Kitano Tea Gathering [Bibliography 2]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Commoners in Kyoto Remodeling / Peasants uprising in the Warring States [Bibliography 1]

Kwong Ying Shan Cassandra

Kyoto Okazaki Cultural Landscape Investigation Report and Conservation Management Plan

Tsang Ka Lee

Dams in Japan: Past, Present, and Future

Tsang Ka Lee

The traffic on the Biwako-Canal in the Meiji era

Tsang Ka Lee

The Lake Biwa Canal Project Summary.

Miu Ho Yeung

Kyoto Okazaki Area Cultural and Landscape Survey Report

Miu Ho Yeung

East Meets West: Lake Biwa Canal, Kyoto, Japan

Miu Ho Yeung

History of Japan’s first commercial hydroelectric generation at keage power station

Miu Ho Yeung

The Lake Biwa – Kioto Canal, Japan.

Miu Ho Yeung

The Lake Biwa Canal Plan 1885-1890/ Meiji industrial history

Choi Wai Pan

The Lake Biwa Canal Plan 1885-1890/ Video Sources

Choi Wai Pan

A Plan for Lake Biwa Canal Construction/ Tanabe Sakuro

Choi Wai Pan

Cultural Landscape of Okazaki in Kyoto/ Kyoto Culture and Citizens Affairs Bureau

Choi Wai Pan

Conservation, Revitalization and Creation of Kyoto Landscape/ The Landscape of Kyoto

Choi Wai Pan

Kyoto Architects / WARO KISHI

Chan Shu Man Amanda

Kyoto City Landscape Policy 2007/ Kyoto City 2011 Data Collection

Cho Quentin

 

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